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207 Notes American Agriculture before 1930 1. For most estimates about agricultural growth, I relied on the excellent book by Bruce L. Gardner, AmericanAgriculture in theTwentieth Century:How It Flourished and What It Cost (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002). 2. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2002 Census of Agriculture,vol. 1, ch. 1, U.S. National Data, tables 1 and 2. 3. In Sowing Modernity:America’s First Agricultural Revolution (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1997), Peter D. McClelland both describes and illustrates the major farm tools used before the Civil War. R. Douglas Hurt provides an equally vivid record in American FarmTools, from Hand Power to Steam Power (Manhattan, Kans.: Sunflower University Press, 1982). All the tools I mention, before the modern tractor, are illustrated in these two books. 4. The complex story of harvesting and threshing equipment for small grains is well told and illustrated in Graeme Quick andWesley Buchele, The Grain Harvesters (St. Joseph, Mo.: American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1978). For the special conditions in the hilly areas of Washington and Oregon and for great photographs, see Kirby Brumfield, ThisWasWheat Farming:A Pictorial History of the Farms and Farmers of the NorthwestWho Grew the Nation’s Bread (Seattle: Superior Publishing Company, 1968). 5. Old tractors are now collector’s items, with numerous guides to the various types and makes. For my summary I relied largely on Robert C. Williams, Fordson, Farmall, and Poppin’ Johnny: A History of the Farm Tractor and Its Impact on America (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987). 6. Gladys L. Baker, Wayne D. Rasmussen, Vivian Wiser, and Jane M. Porter, Century of Service:The First HundredYears of the United States Department of Agriculture (Washington , D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1963); R. Grant Seals,“The Formation of Agricultural and Rural Development with Emphasis on African-Americans. II. The Hatch-George and Smith-Lever Acts,” Agricultural History 65 (spring 1991): 12–34; Jane M. Porter, “Experiment Stations in the South, 1877–1940,” Agricultural History 53 (January 1979): 84–101; Lou Ferleger, “Uplifting American Ag- 208 Notes riculture: Experiment Station Scientists and the Office of Experiment Stations,” Agricultural History 64 (spring 1990): 5–23. 7. Jeffrey W. Moss and Cynthia B. Lass, “A History of Farmers’ Institutes,” Agricultural History 62 (spring 1988): 150–63. 8. Roy V. Scott, The Reluctant Farmer:The Rise of Agricultural Extension to 1914 (Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 1970). 9.Wayne Rasmussen, Taking the University to the People:Seventy-fiveYears of Cooperative Extension (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1989). 10.The National Vocational Education (Smith-Hughes) Act, Public Law No. 347, Sixty-fourth Congress, S-703 (1917). 11.William D. Rowley, The Bureau of Reclamation:Origins and Growth to 1945 (Washington , D.C.: Bureau of Reclamation, 2006). 12.The best analysis of the Federal Farm LoanAct that I have read was almost contemporaneous with the bill: C.W. Thompson, “The Federal Farm Loan Act,” The American Economic Review, Supplement, Papers and Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting of the American Economics Association 7 (March 1917): 115–31. 13. John Mark Hansen, GainingAccess:Congress and the Farm Lobby,1919–1981 (Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1991). 14. Gilbert C. Fite, George N.Peek and the Fight for Farm Parity (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954). 15.Wayne Rasmussen, Farmers,Cooperatives,and USDA:A History of Agricultural Cooperative Service, Agricultural Information Bulletin 621 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1991). 16. Joan Hoff Wilson, “Hoover’s Agricultural Policies, 1921–1928,” Agricultural History 51 (January 1977): 335–61; David E. Hamilton, From New Day to New Deal:American Farm Policy from Hoover to Roosevelt, 1928–1933 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). A New Deal for Agriculture, 1930–1938 1.The most detailed history of the Farm Board is in David E. Hamilton, From New Day to New Deal: American Farm Policy from Hoover to Roosevelt, 1928–1933 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). A good overview is in Gilbert C. Fite, George N. Peek and the Fight for Farm Parity (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), 221–42. 2. A brief history of the effort to gain a domestic allotment plan is in Theodore Saloutos, The American Farmer and the New Deal (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1982), 34–49.The most detailed and thoughtful account is in Richard S. Kirkendall, Social Scientists and Farm Politics in the Age of Roosevelt (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1966), 11–60.Also seeVan...


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