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189 BOOK THREE (MATTHEW 16.13–22.40) OW WHEN JESUS CAME into the region of Caesarea Philippi (16.13). This Philip is the brother of the Herod of whom we spoke above.1 He was the tetrarch of the regions of Iturea and Trachonitis.2 He named this region Caesarea Philippi in honor of Tiberius Caesar. Today it is called Paneas.3 It is in the province of Phoenicia. Philip did this in imitation of his father Herod, who in honor of Caesar Augustus had given the name of Caesarea to the village previously named Tower of Strato,4 and who on the other side of the Jordan had also built Libias, which was named after his daughter.5 Caesarea Philippi 1. Cf. Mt 2.17–18, 20, 22; Mt 11.2–3, 14–15; Mt 14.1–4, 6–11. 2. Cf. Lk 3.1. 3. Paneas is now called Banias. The original name came from the fact that the village was dedicated to the god Pan. Jerome made contradictory statements about this town, sometimes distinguishing it from Dan (Onomasticon 77), and sometimes identifying the two places (Comm. in Ezek. 27.19, PL 25: 258), Comm. in Amos (PL 25: 1084). According to J. F. Wilson, Caesarea Philippi: Banias, the Lost City of Pan (London: I. B. Tauris, 2004), Jerome received his information about the town not firsthand but from Eusebius, Jewish rabbis, and Josephus, AJ 18.2.1; cf. also BJ 2.167–68. 4. This second Caesarea first appears as a Phoenician city apparently built by Strato, a king of Sidon, in the fourth century B.C. Cf. Josephus, AJ 13.15.4. It was the official residence of the Roman procurator. 5. The SC editors think that Jerome has erred by attributing the foundation of Libias to Philip. But they seem to have misread Jerome’s text, since the qui that forms the subject of the second clause, qui . . . ex nomine filiae eius Libiadem, trans Iordanem exstruxit, refers to Herod, not to Philip. But Jerome has erred when he identifies the name of this village with that of the daughter of the emperor. Rather , it is the name of the emperor’s wife. According to Josephus, AJ 18.11.1 and BJ 2.9.1, Philip named ancient Bethsaida Julias “from the name of the daughter of the emperor [Augustus]”; his brother Herod Antipas named the ancient Betharan in Perea beyond the Jordan Julias from the name of the wife of the emperor. Only this latter village is customarily designated under the name Livias. One can 190 ST. JEROME is located where the Jordan has its source in Lebanon. Its two springs are there, one named Jor and another Dan. These have been combined in the name Jordan.6 16.13. And he asked his disciples, saying: “Who do men say that the Son of man is?” He did not say, “Who do men say that I am,” but “the Son of man.” He wanted to avoid the appearance of asking about himself in a boasting fashion.7 And note that wherever “Son of man” is written in the Old Testament, the Hebrew has “son of Adam.” And that which we read in the Psalm: “sons of men, how long will you have a heavy heart?”8 is said in Hebrew as “sons of Adam.” It is well that the Savior asks: “Who do men say that the Son of man is?” For those who speak about the Son of man are men; but those who understand his deity are not men but are called gods.9 16.14. But they said: “Some say John the Baptist; others say Elijah ; and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.” I marvel that certain interpreters10 inquire about the causes of each of these errors . They compose very lengthy disputations about why some were thinking that our Lord Jesus Christ was John, others Elijah , but others Jeremiah or one of the prophets. Yet they could have erred about Elijah and Jeremiah in the same manner in which Herod had erred about John when he said: “John whom I beheaded has himself risen from the dead, and miraculous powers are at work in him.”11 16.15–16. “But you, who do you say that I am?” Simon Peter answered : “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” Wise reader, notice from what follows and from the context of the words that the apostles are by no...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780813217123
Related ISBN
9780813201177
MARC Record
OCLC
820723150
Pages
363
Launched on MUSE
2013-05-20
Language
English
Open Access
No
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