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 Appendix 2 David Ingalls’s Technical Notes, Turnberry, Scotland While at the Turnberry gunnery school, David Ingalls compiled a collection of technical notes gathered from lectures and instruction pamphlets covering the use and maintenance of machine guns, synchronization gears, and gun sights.The importance of this information could not be overstressed.A pilot’s life depended on it. Each student assembled such a collection, but very few of these compilations have survived to this day.Though seemingly tedious and arcane, Ingalls’s extensive notes reveal how complicated and technologically sophisticated such equipment had become by 1918; they also indicate the degree of knowledge and skill necessary to understand,maintain,and use that weaponry.His writings are reproduced here in the order that he entered them into his notebooks. Training/Technical Notebook Compiled atTurnberry, February 1918 Sopwith-Kauper Gun Gear, Type No. 3 A cam is attached to some suitable part of the engine such as the distributor and has two depressions or firing points in its contour, this providing two firing positions per revolution.Tappets and guides (one for each gun) are fixed to the back plate of the engine so that their roller can run in contact with the cam, and so that the angle between them is the same as the angle between the gun and the center line of the propeller. A light spring acts on the bell crank and serves to lift the roller out of contact with the cam while the gear is out of action. A three-pin lever is connected to a short pull rod, which acts on the actuating lever of the trigger shaft.This rocks in a bracket fastened to the  Appendix 2 rear cover of the gun, so that its end can operate the trigger of the gun through a hole cut in the rear cover.The ordinary firing mechanism of the gun and the trigger bore(?) are removed. The gear is arranged so that the gun is fired when the roller of the tappet runs down to the lowest part of the cam and allows the main spring of the gear to pull the long pull rod to the rear,and so operate the trigger lever. The action of the gun can now be understood if it is assumed that the main spring can be pulled by some means when it is desired to fire the gun. When the spring is pulled it tries to pull the three-pin lever to the rear, and by so doing to pull the trigger shaft, actuating lever by means of the short pull and so to fire the gun. The movement of the three-pin lever, however, is controlled by the cam by means of the roller, tappet push rod, bell crank lever, and pull rod, it only being able to move to the rear and allow the gun to be fired when the roller runs down into one of the depressions in the cam. The tendency of the light spring to keep the roller out of contact with the cam is of course overcome by the action of the main spring, which is of sufficient strength to make the roller follow the cam all the time it is desired to fire the gun. In the non-firing position the feathers on the guide rod are caught up on the edges of the front spring anchorage, and are unable to move down the slots provided for them.The main spring is thus held extended and so unable to pull the front and rear anchorages together and the whole unit may be moved to the extent permitted by the end pillar without any influence from the main spring. The light spring therefore serves to draw the pull rod and main spring unit forward and so lifts the push rod and raises the roller clear of the cam. When the Bowden control is operated the end lever is rotated and the projections provided on its forward face wedge their way out of the grooves cut in the rear face of the end pillar, and pull the whole spring unit back a distance equal to the depth of the stop. If the end lever is rotated only sufficiently just to draw its projections out of the grooves and no more, the guide rod feathers will still be caught on the steps of the front spring anchorage, and the main spring will still be inoperative, but the main unit will have been drawn back against the...


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