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Notes Abbreviations AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science AG-LJ American Gas-Light Journal AJS American Journal of Science APS American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia BJHS British Journal for the History of Science BSNH Boston Society of Natural History Giddens, Documents Paul H. Giddens, ed., Pennsylvania Petroleum, 1750– 1872: A Documentary History (Titusville: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1947) Giddens, Sources Paul H. Giddens, ed., The Beginnings of the Petroleum Industry: Sources and Bibliography (Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical Commission, 1941) GSL Geological Society of London Merrill,“Reminiscences” Joshua Merrill,“Joshua Merrill,” in Derrick’s Hand-Book of Petroleum: A Complete Chronological and Statistical Review of Petroleum Developments from 1859 to 1899, 2 vols. (Oil City, PA: Derrick Publishing Company, 1898) NYSA New York State Archives, Albany NYSL New York State Library, Albany SLB, LR Secretary’s Letter Books, Letters Received SUA Strathclyde University Archives, Glasgow, Scotland S-W NAS “Silliman-Whitney Controversy” file, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC T&C Technology & Culture YUL Yale University Library, New Haven, Connecticut Introduction 1. For all its importance to the pursuit of science, money has not been a central topic of concern to historians of science.As the inimitable Roy Porter noted, the exclusion of “such a vulgar subject” might reflect the “gentlemanly” breeding of historians of sci325 ence more than the absence of monetary interests. Porter, “Gentlemen and Geology: The Emergence of a Scientific Career,1660–1920,”Historical Journal, 21 (1978):809–836, 832 n. 66. Howard S. Miller, Dollars for Research: Science and Its Patrons in NineteenthCentury America (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1970); W. H. Brock, “The Spectrum of Scientific Patronage,”in G. L. E. Turner, ed., The Patronage of Science in the Nineteenth Century (Leiden: Noordoff International, 1976), 173–206. By contrast, for students of modern science and science policy makers, money is of supreme importance . David S. Greenberg, Science, Money, and Politics: Political Triumph and Ethical Erosion (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001). 2. Margaret W. Rossiter, Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984). 3. George P. Merrill, The First Hundred Years of American Geology (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1924); A. Hunter Dupree, Science in the Federal Government (reprint, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987); Michele L. Aldrich, New York State Natural History Survey, 1836–1842: A Chapter in the History of American Science (Ithaca, NY: Paleontological Research Institution, 2000); Patsy Gerstner, Henry Darwin Rogers, 1808–1866: American Geologist (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1994); Benjamin R. Cohen,“Surveying Nature: Environmental Dimensions of Virginia’s First Scienti fic Survey, 1835–1842,”Environmental History, 11 (2006):37–69; Walter B. Hendrickson , “Nineteenth-Century State Geological Surveys: Early Government Support of Science,” Isis, 52 (1961):357–371; Stephen P. Turner,“The Survey in Nineteenth-Century American Geology: The Evolution of a Form of Patronage,”Minerva, 25 (1987):282–330; Anne Marie Millbrooke, “State Geological Surveys in the Nineteenth Century” (PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1981); Morris Zaslow, Reading the Rocks: The Story of the Geological Survey of Canada, 1842–1972 (Toronto: Macmillan, 1975); Suzanne Zeller, Inventing Canada: Early Victorian Science and the Idea of a Transcontinental Nation (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987); William E. Eagan, “The Canadian Geological Survey: Hinterland between Two Metropolises,” Earth Sciences History, 12 (1993):99–106; Sally Gregory Kohlstedt, The Formation of the American Scienti fic Community: The American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1848–1860 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976). 4. Professionalization can be characterized by learning, licensing/legitimation, and livelihood (usually employment in universities, government agencies, or corporate R&D labs). See Charles Coulston Gillispie, Science and Polity in France at the End of the Old Regime (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980), 84–89, 549–551; Samuel Haber, The Quest for Authority and Honor in the American Professions, 1750–1900 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991); Nathan O. Hatch, ed., The Professions in American History (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1988); Thomas L. Haskell, ed., The Authority of Experts: Studies in History and Theory (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984); Gerald Geison, ed., Professions and Professional Ideology in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983); Andrew Abbott, The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988); Joseph Ben-David, The Scientist’s Role in Society: A Comparative Study (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984); Magali Sarfatti Larson, The Rise of Professionalism: A Sociological Analysis (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977); Burton J...


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