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Acknowledgments The first step in thanking everyone is finding the right metaphor. In a book about commercial science it would seem appropriate that I should say something about paying debts and obligations, but I am going to choose a metaphor that reveals something about me and the way I work. It is soccer, a sport that I have enjoyed playing all my life and one that I am now coaching for boys and girls. Finishing (in soccer and in writing) is all about the team behind you. And this book has needed a very large one. I would never have ventured onto the field of history of science and technology in the first place were it not for my teachers at Princeton University. Charles Gillispie, Gerald Geison, and Michael Mahoney taught me to write and to think like a historian. Charles Gillispie, especially, has never let me lose hope that my story is worth telling,and in my own words.My graduate education was also enhanced by a cohort of skilled scholars who I am honored to call my friends: KenArnold,Ann Blair,John Carson,Kevin Downing,Marybeth Hamilton ,Tama Hasson,Stuart McCook,Bo Sanitioso,Molly Sutphen,Emily Thompson , and Jeffery Westbrook. The History Department at Princeton University got this book started in another way by awarding me a postdoctoral fellowship. The committee was also instrumental in getting the rules changed to allow a free-range scholar to receive such an award. Switching fields is a common tactic in soccer, and this book, too, has moved forward by going from side to side. The Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine has afforded me many kindnesses, from research grants to office space, during my visits to London; particular thanks go to William Bynum and Sally Bragg. The incomparable Roy Porter pointed out how much more there is to the history of geology, and Janet Browne, who edited an article of mine for the British Journal for the History of Science, showed me what graceful writing looks like.I would also like to thank John Komlos and the National Endowment for the Humanities for the chance to study economics and economic history at a summer seminar on the Industrial Revolution held at the University of Munich . Although it is called the miserable science, I had a great time discussing it over liters of beer with John Murray, Philip Pajakowski, Christine Rider, Robert Schultz, Gennady Shkliarevsky, and Michéal Thompson. Much of the research for this book was underwritten by a grant from the National Science Foundation (SBR-9711172). Edward Hackett and Michael Sokal xi made that grant work, and the anonymous reviewers suggested ways to make the research workable. Some of them cautioned me against an overly optimistic view of the relations between knowledge and money, a view I displayed in an early Isis article. Margaret Rossiter, Nathan Reingold, Marc Rothenberg, and Michele Aldrich provided much needed correction to that rosy view as well as useful insights into the characters and interests of nineteenth-century men of science. This book has also benefited from the advice and encouragement of P. Thomas Carroll, Robert Silliman, David Spanagel, Hugh Torrens, and Julie Newell,whose research often overlaps mine.I have also been lucky to have many generous and thoughtful patrons who have been instrumental in finding support for a consulting historian,in particular,Shirley Gorenstein,Deborah Johnson , Jennifer Phillips, Ronald Rainger, and Marie Schwartz. The ideas in this book have been sharpened and enriched by the comments and queries of numerous audience members at History of Science and History of Technology meetings, but I would like to single out David Edge and John Carson, who always asks the best questions. I would also like to thank the participants and organizers of several colloquia to which I was invited to speak. At the Davis Center in Princeton, William Jordan, Charles Gillispie, and Ed Tenner provided a welcome homecoming; at the University of Pennsylvania, Emily Thompson, Robert Kohler, and Susan Lindee pushed me to rethink my perspective on the historiography of American science. At the Chemical Heritage Foundation in Philadelphia, Christopher Hamlin and later Theodore Porter offered invaluable expertise on professionalization. And at the Max Planck Institute in Berlin, I had the chance to discuss my thoughts on law and science with Ken Alder, Tal Golan, Daniel Kevles, Michael Hagner, Ann Johnson, and Simon Schaffer. I will always be thankful to (and amused by) those swift and lighthearted players...


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