publisher colophon

Index

Accounting and Tabulating Machine Company of Great Britain. See Powers company, British

adding machine, keyboard, 31, 32, 39, 40, 47, 51, 70, 71, 81, 86, 89, 98, 108, 141, 154, 198, 199, 207, 217, 358

adding tabulator. See tabulator

address plate, 117, 168–70, 173, 224, 225

agency. See International Business Machines; Powers Accounting Machine Company; subsidiary/subsidiaries; Tabulating Machine Company

American Arithmometer Company. See Burroughs Adding Machine Company

antitrust, 10, 34, 74, 82, 90, 111, 116, 214, 257, 352, 354

army punched-card service, German. See Maschinelles Berichtswesen

audit(s), 145, 148

railroad, 45, 46, 67

Aussedat. See Société des Papeteries Aussedat

Austria, 18, 41, 129–31, 133, 135, 136, 144, 147, 152, 257, 262, 356

Austrian, Geoffrey D., 54, 359

automatic group control. See tabulator

Baltimore (Maryland), 1, 18, 33, 215, 217, 356, 359

banks, 70, 97, 123

British, 356

French, 192–94

German, 122, 180, 183–85

U.S., 89

Bayer and Co. See Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedrich Bayer and Co.

Bell, Alexander Graham, 29

Bell Telephone Company, 34, 61

Bijker, Wiebe E., 7, 8, 257, 258

Billings, John S., 22, 23, 29, 32, 253, 258

Boston, 49–51, 67, 354

British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM), 82, 161, 167, 170, 210

establishment of, 139–42

and First World War, 145

inventions of, 142, 176, 177–80

and patents, 143–44

relationship with TMC/IBM, 140, 167, 175–78

sales, 141, 143, 177, 251, 263, 264. See also Tabulating Machine Company: agencies of

brush reading, 60, 75, 108

Bryce, James Wares, 113, 124

BTM. See British Tabulating Machine Company

Bull, Compagnie des Machines. See Compagnie des Machines Bull; Egli-Bull

Bull, Fredrik Rosing, 198, 358

Bundy Manufacturing Company, 106

Bureau of Internal Revenue (now Internal Revenue Service), 213, 215, 218

Bureau of the Census (U.S.). See census office, U.S.

Burroughs, William Seward, 70

Burroughs Adding Machine Company, 32, 52, 53, 70, 71, 78, 81, 98, 99, 108, 217, 359

Burroughs Corporation. See Burroughs Adding Machine Company

Cailles, Jacques, 201, 203

calculating machine(s): key office machine, 40, 70, 71, 123, 151, 191, 217

punched-card tabulator, 5, 87, 170, 174, 183, 184, 196, 235

Carmille, René, 196–98, 203, 222, 226, 227, 229, 230, 232, 233

Carroll, Fred Merchant, 112, 113

CEC. See International Business Machines, French company of

Census Bureau machine shop, 72–82, 85, 99, 103, 126, 354

census office, non-U.S.: Austria 18, 131, 152

France, 18, 35, 133–36, 152–54, 226, 229, 231–33

Germany, 20, 35, 135

Great Britain, 18, 20, 35, 135, 139, 141, 142, 155, 357

Norway, 132

Prussia, 18, 135

Russia, 133

census office, U.S.: discussion of permanent office, 3, 14, 15, 17–20, 35, 37

U.S. Census Bureau (Bureau of the Census), 13, 18, 35, 54–59, 65, 66, 74–82, 97, 103, 104, 108, 126, 142, 155, 253, 254, 353, 354, 356

U.S. Census Office of 1870, 20, 21

U.S. Census Office of 1880, 20–22, 28, 29, 31, 32, 253, 258, 356

U.S. Census Office of 1890, 3, 5, 11, 15, 19, 20, 22–28, 33–36, 38–42, 43, 67, 86, 139, 259, 262, 356

U.S. Census Office of 1900, 27, 51–54, 74, 356

census, population, 3, 15, 33, 35, 40, 47, 50, 52, 79, 81, 128, 153, 258. See also census office, non-U.S.; census office, U.S.

Chandler, Alfred D., 9, 10, 38, 102, 116, 161, 262

Chicago, 67, 110, 132, 133, 262, 358

Civil War (U.S.), 17, 38, 63, 68, 226

classi-compteur, 134, 153–55

CMC. See Compagnie des Machines Bull

Coase, Ronald H., 10

collator. See punched-card machines Columbia College (now Columbia University), 18, 28, 96, 249, 250, 354, 359

Columbia University. See Columbia College

Compagnie des Machines Bull (CMB; Bull Machine Company), 194, 227, 255–57, 260, 351, 352, 355, 359

establishment of, 198–203

and French army, 196–98, 223–24

and German takeover of France, 242–43

inventions of, 204–8

sales, 263

Compagnie électro-comptable. See International Business Machines, French company of

Computing Scale Company, 106

Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR), 89, 105–7, 113, 115, 158, 159

sales, 111, 112. See also International Business Machines; Tabulating Machine Company

Congress, U.S., 21, 37, 56, 213, 253, 353

conscription. See under First World War; Second World War

Constitution: French, 193, 225

U.S., 5, 17, 19

Corps du contrôle de l’administration de l’Armée de terre, 196, 353, 357

CTR. See Computing Tabulating Recording Company

current account. See Kontokorrent

D11 tabulator. See Deutsche Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft

Dalton Adding Machine Company, 86, 89

DeCamp and Sloan Manufacturing Company, 100. See also Sloan and Chance Manufacturing Company

Dehomag. See Deutsche Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft

Demographic Service. See Service de la démographie

Department of Agriculture, U.S., 18

Department of Justice, U.S., 90, 116, 354

Deutschen Gesellschaft für Addierund Sortiermaschinen. See Powers company, German

Deutsche Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft (Dehomag): as agency of Tabulating Machine Company, 145, 150–51, 161, 162

D11 tabulator, 185, 187, 209, 235, 244, 245, 358

and German army, 234–36

machine building and production, 124, 150, 162, 163, 177, 183–85, 187, 264

and Ministry for Armaments and Munitions, 239–42, 244

operations in Germany, 182–85, 187–89, 209, 235, 236, 257, 263

operations outside of Germany, 132, 142

patent suits, 148, 149, 186, 187

sales, 147, 161, 189, 234, 263

as subsidiary, 151, 152

Doury, Elie, 194, 200, 203

Eastman Kodak, 34, 67, 159

École polytechnique (Paris), 153, 194, 196

Edison, Thomas Alva, 29, 67

Egli adding machine company (Zürich), 198–200, 204, 207, 209

Egli-Bull, 198–200. See also Compagnie des Machines Bull

electromechanical technology, 29–31, 51, 85, 104, 117, 153, 154, 204, 249, 250

Equitable Life Assurance Society, 218. See also insurance companies: U.S.

Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedrich Bayer and Co., 146, 147, 162

feed. See punched-card machine(s)

Felt, Dorr E., 70

Felt and Tarrant, 32, 52, 53, 70, 78, 83, 85, 86, 251

First World War, 62–65, 265

conscription, 33, 144–45

and Powers company, British, 166

and Powers company, French, 156–57

and Powers company, German, 149–52

Ford, Eugene Amzi, 47, 48, 60, 61, 66, 107, 112

France. See census office, non-U.S.: in France; First World War: and Powers company, French; International Business Machines, French company of; insurance companies: French; Jew(s); register(s): in France; register(s), national: in France; statistical office: French; Third Republic; Vichy France; and individual cities, companies, and persons

Frenchify, 194, 195, 210

Foster, Charles, 166

gang punch. See punched-card machine(s)

Germany. See census office, non-U.S.: in Germany; Germanness; insurance companies: German; Jew(s); Prussia; register(s), national: in Germany; self-sufficiency, national, Germany; statistical office: German; and individual cities, companies, and persons

Germanness, 188

Gestapo, 230, 232, 246, 248

Gore, John K., 43, 44, 48, 52, 53, 55, 75

Great Britain, 18, 35, 135, 136, 139, 142, 167, 355. See also London; Scotland, Wales; and individual cities, companies, and persons

Greene, Everard, 140, 141

health insurance, 165, 182

Heidinger, Willy, 146–52, 188, 189, 209, 241, 244

His Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO), 143–45, 165, 354

HMSO. See His Majesty’s Stationery Office

Hollerith, Herman, 3, 14, 31

business strategies of, 34–35, 41, 50, 58, 61–62, 66–68, 125, 128, 136

and companies outside of U.S., 49, 129–35, 138–40, 145–46

inventions, 39, 40, 51, 54, 59–60, 108–10

and insurance companies, 42–43

patents of, 103, 114, 128, 143–44, 159, 186

and railroads, 45–48

and sales, 41, 50, 58, 66, 67, 136, 137

as student of mechanical engineering, 26–27

and tabulator, 25–26, 29–31, 32–33, 39, 47, 59

and U.S. census office, 22–25, 28, 38, 51–57

Hughes, Thomas E., 8, 9, 12, 125, 259, 262

Hunt, William C., 23, 36, 37

IBM. See International Business Machines

IBM card. See patent(s), IBM card; punched card(s): 80-column

IBM company, British. See British Tabulating Machine Company

IBM company, French. See International Business Machines, French company of

IBM company, German. See Deutsche Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft

IBM Type 405, 239

IBM Type 600, 124, 249

IBM Type 601, 124, 249

IBM Type 603, 249

IBM Type 604, 249

Institute of Actuaries of America, 42, 43

insurance companies: British, 165, 166, 168, 169, 179, 242

French, 198, 200, 205, 260

German 147, 186

U.S., 4, 35, 38, 42–45, 52, 58, 75, 91, 99–102, 117, 118, 121, 122, 212, 224, 253, 255, 256, 359

International Business Machines (IBM): agencies of, 82, 132, 139, 140, 143, 145, 146, 148, 151, 152, 162, 176, 180, 209, 264

business strategy, 34, 95, 111, 112, 121, 212, 243, 246, 249, 251, 257, 260, 263

equipment, 81, 93, 102, 121–27, 163, 164, 172, 174, 178, 179, 183–86, 196–98, 203, 206–9, 214, 217, 220, 221, 223, 227, 235, 236, 239–41, 244, 249–51, 255–57

patents, 104

as prime mover, 105, 143

sales, 34, 123, 126, 251

subsidiaries, 152, 158, 159, 183, 187, 189, 201, 204, 210, 234, 240, 241, 244, 255. See also Computing Tabulating Recording Company; Tabulating Machine Company; and individual machines and subsidiaries

International Business Machines, French company of: Compagnie électrocomptable (CEC), 158, 195

Société française Hollerith, machines comptable et enregistreuse, 195

Société internationale de machines commerciales (SIMC), 158, 159

International Chamber of Commerce, 240, 241

International Time Recording Company, 106, 113, 158

interpreter. See punched-card machines

Jew(s): discrimination against in France, 225, 226, 230–32

location of, for deportation in France, 5, 222, 232, 234

location of, for deportation in Germany, 246–48

Johns Hopkins University, 18, 359

Keen, Harold Hall, 29, 55, 145, 178, 179

keyboard adding machine. See adding machine

key punch. See punch

Kontokorrent, 183, 184, 193

Knutsen, Knut Andreas, 198, 204–7, 358

Lake, Clair Dennison, 112–14, 118–21

Lanston, Tolbert, 31, 32, 39, 40, 47

Lasker, William W., 82, 85–87, 89, 91, 93

Library Bureau (Boston), 49, 50, 134

London, 41, 49, 91, 129, 130, 134, 135, 138, 141, 165, 167, 171, 176, 262, 354, 357

March, Lucian, 134, 153, 154

Maschinelles Berichtswesen, 191, 234–37, 241, 243

Massachusetts, 18, 22, 23, 28, 33, 41, 50, 61, 66, 107, 112, 354

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT): and Herman Hollerith, 28

and teaching of statistics, 18

master card (punched card), 100, 101, 217, 219

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 42, 91, 100–102, 118. See also insurance companies: U.S.

Ministry for Armaments and Munitions. See Reichsministerium für Bewaffnung und Munition

Ministry for Munitions (Great Britain), 145

Ministry for Trade and Industry, National. See Reichswirtschaftsministerium

mobilization. See register(s): and mobilization of troops

monopoly/monopolies, 55, 73, 74, 82, 116, 125, 254, 354

Monroe Calculating Machine Company, 217

Morland and Impey (Britain), 159, 169, 171

National Cash Register Company (NCR), 51, 98, 110–12, 116, 359

sales, 110, 111

national registers. See register(s)

National Statistics Service. See Service national des statistiques

New York Central and Hudson River Railroad, 45–50, 52–54, 58, 59, 65–67

New York City: Columbia College/Columbia University, 18, 28, 249–50

and Herman Hollerith, 27–28, 32–34, 42, 51

and John Royden Peirce, 96, 99–100, 118

and punched-card technology, 67, 91, 143

New York State, 27, 41, 70, 89, 106, 353

North, Douglass C., 10

North, Simon Newton Dexter, 55–57, 75, 81

Norway, 41, 129, 130, 132, 133, 135, 136, 152, 198, 199, 204, 262, 355

number, identifying people with: in Germany, 246

in U.S., 63, 214

numeric printing, and key office machine, 98. See also tabulator

office machine. See individual machines and inventors

old age pension, 1, 165, 211–13, 216, 251

operational statistics. See statistics: operational

paper strip, 29, 32

Paris, 35, 42, 49, 93, 128–30, 134, 135, 146, 148, 153, 156, 159, 194, 196–201, 204, 225, 227, 242, 243

Passow, Kurt, 239, 241–44

patent(s): automatic group control, 90, 93, 103, 104, 109, 114, 116, 117, 125, 143, 144, 191, 352

Hollerith’s original punched-card, 12, 31, 56, 77, 80, 88, 103

IBM card, 93, 119, 173, 186, 187, 206, 209

key punch, 45, 75

Lanston adding machine, 32, 40

legislation on, 12, 54, 129, 130, 138, 143, 144, 234, 257, 352

litigation on, 54, 79, 114, 116, 144, 149, 159, 160, 185, 186, 206, 223, 352, 354, 355

sorter, 75, 79, 80, 88

patent infringement. See patent(s): litigation on

Patent Office, U.S., 12, 28, 29, 114, 124. See also under patent(s)

Patterson, John Henry, 111

Peirce, John Royden, 96

as challenger to Herman Hollerith, 72–73, 108

inventions of, 96–102, 104, 117–19

and patents, 114, 117–19, 121–26. See also Taft-Peirce Manufacturing Company

Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 45

Pétain, Philipe, 2, 225

Phillpotts, Ralegh, 139

Pidgin, Charles F., 23, 36, 37, 50, 51, 55, 56, 74

plugboard. See tabulator

polytechnicien, 194, 196, 202, 203

Porter, Robert Percival, 139

Powers, James, 76

business strategies of, 89, 142–43, 148

challenger to Herman Hollerith, 73, 79–80, 104

inventions of, 78–79, 82–86, 108, 109

and patents, 88, 93, 104, 109, 114–16, 148, 159, 186

Powers Accounting Machine Company, 84–91, 93, 114–16, 127, 166–72, 192–94, 208, 241, 255, 260

agencies of, 138, 143, 148–49, 160, 164, 186

sales, 88, 115. See also Remington Rand; and individual agents and subsidiaries

Powers company, British (Powers-Samas), 91, 169–75, 192, 205, 206, 208–10, 255, 264, 354

Accounting and Tabulating Machine Company of Great Britain, 143

and First World War, 166

inventions of, 91, 169–70, 174–75

relationship with parent company, 159–60, 166–68

sales, 169, 171, 251, 263, 264

and SAMAS, 194–95

Powers company, French (Société anonyme des machines à statistique, or SAMAS), 159, 160, 167, 171–73, 175, 194, 195, 199, 202, 204, 210, 223, 224, 251, 255

Powers company, German (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Addier- und Sortiermaschinen; Powers Gesellschaft), 143, 148–50, 164, 183, 185–87, 189–92, 208–10, 243, 244, 255, 264, 355

Powers company, U.S. See Powers

Accounting Machine Company; Remington Rand

Powers-Four, 172–74

Powers-One, 174, 175

Powers-Samas. See Powers company, British

Prudential Assurance Company, 143, 165–68, 208, 357. See also insurance companies: British

Prudential Insurance Company, 43–45, 52, 75, 91, 101, 118, 122, 253. See also insurance companies

Prussia, 18, 135, 136, 147, 246

public utilities, punched cards and, 4, 95, 97, 121, 142, 181, 235, 255, 266

punch, alphanumeric, 101

automatic key (Powers), 76, 78–80, 82, 87, 114

conductor’s, 33

enforced key (TMC), 114, 115

gang, 112

Gore, 29, 43

Hollerith’s original model, 29

key, 5, 27, 47, 48, 53, 87, 96, 97, 110, 112, 114, 115, 173

pantograph, 25, 33, 47, 77–79, 81, 110

punched card(s), organized by columns, 46, 47, 59

20-column, 79, 53, 77–79

21-column, 174

24-column, 24, 47, 53, 58, 76, 79, 81, 179

26-column, 59, 172, 174

36-column, 47, 53, 58, 66, 174

38-column, 179

40-column, 174

43-column, 96

45-column, 47, 59, 63, 66, 81–83, 92–94, 117, 119, 120, 126, 148, 160, 172–74, 191, 192, 205–7, 209, 223, 254–56, 260

60-column, 172

65-column, 174, 175, 223

80-column (IBM card), 47, 81, 93, 119, 120, 172–75, 178–80, 206–7, 209, 223, 224, 227, 256

86-column, 117, 118, 122

90-column, 91, 92, 94, 122, 172, 186, 192

130-column, 223, 224

135-column, 191

punched card(s), organized by decks: double-deck, 94, 95, 117, 118, 122, 123, 172, 186, 190, 191

triple-deck, 191

punched-card machine(s): collator, 219, 220, 251

gang punch, 112

interpreter, 94, 217

manual feed, 25, 26, 54, 77, 99

mechanized feed, 30, 53, 54, 58, 75, 77, 99, 114

reproducer, 120

speck detector, 108

verifier, 5, 85, 86, 94, 114, 115, 179, 192, 196, 242. See also punch; sorter; tabulator

punched-card register. See register(s): punched-card

punch strip, 29, 30, 32, 78, 191, 192, 259

Puteaux, France, 197

railroad(s)/railway(s), 32, 38, 44–50, 52–54, 58, 59, 62, 65–67, 117, 141, 142, 147, 159, 160, 181, 196, 200, 253, 254

Rand, James Henry, 89

record management, 4, 255, 256

register(s), 1, 10, 14, 252, 256

in France, 2–3, 123, 198, 203, 222, 224, 226, 227, 229, 232, 233, 260

in Germany, 3, 182, 212, 233, 234, 236, 238–40, 246–48

and mobilization of troops, 2, 3, 123, 222, 226, 227, 229, 230, 233

punched-card, 1, 3, 4, 182, 212, 222, 224, 226, 227, 230, 232–34, 235, 237–39, 245, 246, 248, 256, 266

in U.S., 1, 4, 5, 63, 212, 214–21, 251, 256, 257, 260

register(s), national: in Britain, 136

in France, 3, 5, 164, 222, 226, 230, 232, 233, 240

in Germany, 3, 239, 245, 246, 248 366

Registrar General (Britain), 135, 141, 142

Reichsministerium für Bewaffnung und Munition, 3, 62, 237

Reichswirtschaftsministerium, 187, 191, 192, 243, 244

Remington Rand (RR), 116, 122, 127, 168, 186, 190, 192, 195, 199–201, 208, 256–57, 352, 354, 359

establishment of, 89

and inventions, 172

Model 2, 94, 186

Model 3, 95, 221

and patents, 90, 116

sales, 90, 92, 171. See also Powers Accounting Machine Company

Remington Typewriter Company, 70, 89

Rentenanstalt Zürich (Switzerland), 205

reproducer. See punched-card machines

Rimailho, Emile, 202, 203

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 1, 4, 211–13, 221

Roosevelt, Theodore, 55

Royal Statistical Society, London, 41, 139

royalty, 88, 90, 115, 116, 140, 146, 149, 151, 167, 175, 176–79, 242

RR. See Remington Rand Russell, Harold R., 171

Russia, 49, 63, 76, 129, 130, 132, 133, 135, 136

Russian Central Statistical Committee, 133

sales. See individual companies

sales analysis, 58, 67, 141, 147, 169

SAMAS. See Powers company, French Sauvy, Alfred, 227

Schaaf, John Thomas, 114, 124

Schäffler, Theodor Otto Hermann, 47, 60, 126, 130, 131, 133, 162, 257

Scotland, 135, 142

Seaton, Charles W., 21, 22, 29, 32, 36

Seaton device, 20–22, 29, 32, 36

Second World War, 14, 65, 164, 212, 221

armaments, 236

conscription and mobilization of troops, 223–30, 238

and German punched-card companies, 244–45

and Jews, 230–33

managing resources during, 233–35. See also register(s), national; Vichy France; and individual companies and persons

Service de la démographie, 227

Service national des statistiques, 227–29, 231, 232

Sevran-Livry, France, 197, 198

self-sufficiency, national, Germany (autarchy), 187, 189, 190, 204, 210, 236, 241, 257, 265

Siemens, 182, 189–92, 242, 355

SIMC. See International Business Machines, French company of

Sloan and Chance Manufacturing Company, 77. See also DeCamp and Sloan Manufacturing Company

SNS. See National Statistics Service

social construction of technology, 6–8, 257

Social Security: administration of, in U.S., 1, 95, 218, 222, 251, 256, 260, 262, 353, 356

number, in France, 228

number in U.S., 214–19, 221

pension program, 65, 212, 213, 215–17

Social Security Act, 1, 211–13, 216

Social Security Administration (U.S.), 4, 356

Social Security Board, 211, 213–17, 220, 221

Société anonyme des machines à statistique. See Powers company, French

Société des Papeteries Aussedat, 200–202

Société française Hollerith, machines comptables et enregistreuses. See International Business Machines, French company of

Société internationale de machines commerciales (SIMC). See International Business Machines, French company of

sorter(s): double-deck horizontal (Powers), 83

Gore, 43, 44, 46, 53, 253

hand sorting, 23, 25, 26, 42, 46, 53, 224, 258

Powers’s first model, 78–80, 82

single-deck horizontal (Bull), 204

single-deck horizontal (Hollerith, IBM, TMC), 44, 46, 48, 53, 54, 58, 77, 79, 80, 253,

single-deck horizontal (Powers), 76, 78, 79, 87

vertical (Hollerith, Tabulating Machine Company), 61, 83, 112. See also sorting box

sorting box: Hollerith, 25–27, 32, 43, 44, 46, 53, 56

Pidgin, 51, 56

Speer, Albert, 237, 239–41, 245, 266

Speicer, Charles E., 76, 80

Stationery Office. See His Majesty’s

Stationery Office statistical office(s), national: Austrian, 18, 130, 131

Belgian, 155

British, 18, 20

Dutch, 155

German, 20, 147, 180, 234, 247

French, 18, 132, 133, 134, 155–57, 226, 227, 230

Norwegian, 132

Prussian, 18, 135

Russian, 132, 133

U.S., 128, 55. See also army punched-card service, German; and under statistics

statistics: agricultural, 18, 40, 53, 59, 63, 65

business, 4, 39, 40, 71, 117, 140, 145–47, 157, 158, 159, 162, 180

general 14, 73, 103, 104, 108, 110, 125, 131, 132, 138, 152, 160, 161, 198, 252, 259, 260, 262

insurance (actuarial), 43, 45, 84, 99, 142, 147

operational, 11, 14, 38, 39, 63, 65, 142, 147, 150, 158, 161, 162, 180–82, 197, 222, 226, 249, 254, 262, 263

railroad/railway, 45, 67, 147, 165, 166, 253, 254. See also census office, non-U.S.; census office, U.S.; sales analysis

sterling (British currency), 139–41, 162, 167, 176, 177, 179, 195, 210

stop card, 87, 109

subsidiary/subsidiaries, 138

of International Business Machines, 124, 129, 151, 152, 158, 177, 178, 202, 208, 209, 234, 235, 241, 257, 263

of Powers (later Remington Rand), 160, 186, 187, 190, 194, 202

Surgeon General, U.S. Army, 33, 34, 128

Tabulating Machine Company (TMC): acquires patent rights, 102, 108

agencies of, 54, 132, 138, 146, 148, 161, 162, 167, 175, 180

history of, 3, 50, 61, 62, 66, 67, 105, 106, 107, 110, 113, 126, 150–52, 254, 255, 263

Hollerith’s role in, 66

license to Powers, 87–88, 115, 116

John Royden Peirce and, 108, 117, 118

as prime mover in field, 103, 126

private business of, 57, 58, 116–18

products of, 86, 90, 91, 93, 99, 101, 109, 113–15, 118, 126, 148, 150, 151, 155, 163, 170

relations with Census Bureau, 54–57, 79–82

sources, 352, 354

subsidiaries of, 158, 161, 177, 263. See also individual products and subsidiaries

tabulator: adding, 33, 39, 40, 44–48, 52, 59, 65, 77, 79–81, 96, 142, 184

alphabet printing, 91, 92, 94, 102, 118, 121–23, 164, 166–69, 173, 186, 192, 193, 205, 208, 235, 239, 241–45, 263, 264

alphanumeric printing, 91, 94, 95, 119–21, 123, 173, 179, 196, 205, 208, 209, 221, 223, 235, 236, 238, 239, 241, 243–45, 251, 255, 256, 264

automatic group control, 93, 100, 109, 113, 114, 117, 144, 169, 170, 173

counting, 24–27, 52, 54, 59, 77, 80, 81, 142

multiplying, 124, 185

nonprinting, 25, 70, 112, 117, 123, 145, 151, 198, 204

number printing, 73, 77, 78, 80, 82–86, 90, 93, 103, 104, 108, 112–17, 126, 127, 143, 144, 147–49, 152, 160, 163, 170, 173, 174, 177, 183–85, 187, 186, 198, 204–6, 244, 255

plugboard, 47, 60, 131, 162

subtracting, 119, 120, 170, 177, 178, 184, 185, 193, 197, 207

Tabulator Limited. See British Tabulator Machine Company

Taft-Peirce Manufacturing Company, 48, 50, 57, 60, 66, 107

Tarrant, Robert, 70. See also Felt and Tarrant

Tauschek, Gustav, 124, 125, 353

Taylor, Frederick Windslow, 158

Third Republic (France), 156, 157, 226, 230

Treasury, Department of (U.S.), 18, 102, 213

verifier. See punched-card machine(s)

Veterans Bureau, U.S., 118. See also War Risk Insurance, Bureau of, U.S.

Vethe, Anders Eirikson, 205, 207

Vichy France, 2, 3, 5, 194, 222, 225–27, 229–33

Vieillard, Georges, 194, 200, 201, 203

Vienna, 126, 130–4, 162, 257, 356

Villingen (Germany), 150, 183

Vincennes (France), 159, 195, 196, 357

wages, administration of, 58, 71, 182, 186, 190, 198, 220, 224

Wales, 135, 136, 142

Wanderer-Werke, 241–43, 245

Wanderer Works. See WandererWerke

War Risk Insurance, Bureau of, U.S., 101, 102. See also Veterans Bureau, U.S.

Waterbury, John Isaac, 88, 149

Watson, Thomas John, Sr., 105, 110–13, 115, 116, 119, 126, 151, 152, 201, 241

Western Electric Company, 49, 58, 67, 133

Williams, Robert Neil, 146, 148, 149

World War I. See First World War

World War II. See Second World War

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Essay on Sources

Additional Information

ISBN
9780801898723
Related ISBN
9780801891434
MARC Record
OCLC
647917303
Pages
361-369
Launched on MUSE
2012-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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