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Notes

Introduction

1. Gilbert C. Fite and Jim E. Reese, An Economic History of the United States (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1973), 510.

2. Not named the Social Security Administration until 1946.

3. New York Sunday News, 10 January 1937, 60.1.

4. Wiebe E. Bijker, “Social Construction of Technology,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, vol. 23, 15,522–15,527 (Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 2001); Michel Callon, “Actor Network Theory,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, vol. 1, 62–66 (Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 2001). For a discussion of the two approaches, see Jan Nolin, Att kasta sten i en glashus: En översigt över den vetenskapssociologiska konstruktivismen (Göteborg, Sweden: Institutionen för Vetenskapsteori, Göteborg University, 1990); Sergio Sismondo, “Some Social Constructions,” Social Studies of Science 23 (1993): 515–553; Langdon Winner, “Upon Opening the Black Box and Finding It Empty: Social Constructivism and the Philosophy of Technology,” Science, Technology, and Human Values 18 (1993): 362–378; Trevor Pinch, “Turn, Turn, and Turn Again: The Woolgar Formula,” Science, Technology, and Human Values 18 (1993): 511–522; Hans K. Klein and Daniel Lee Kleinmann, “The Social Construction of Technology: Structural Considerations,” Science, Technology, and Human Values 27 (2002): 28–52.

5. Michel Callon and Bruno Latour, “Unscrewing the Big Leviathan—How Do Actors Macrostructure Reality?” in Advances in Social Theory and Methodology: Toward an Integration of Micro and Macro Sociologies, ed. Karin Knorr Cetina and Aron Cicourel (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981), 277–303; Bruno Latour, “Mixing Humans and Nonhumans Together—The Sociology of a Door-Closer,” Social Problems 35, no. 3 (1988): 298–310; Michel Callon, “Society in the Making: The Study of Technology as a Tool for Social Analysis,” in Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology, ed. Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas P. Hughes, and Trevor Pinch (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989), 83–103; Bruno Latour, “Where Are the Missing Masses? The Sociology of a Few Mundane Artifacts,” in Shaping Technology/Building Society, ed. Wiebe E. Bijker and John Law (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992), 225–258; Madeline Akrich and Bruno Latour, “A Summary of a Convenient Vocabulary for Semiotics of Human and Nonhuman Assemblies,” in Shaping Technology/Building Society, 259–264.

6. Trevor J. Pinch and Wiebe E. Bijker, “The Social Construction of Facts and Artifacts,” in Social Construction of Technological Systems, 17–50; Wiebe E. Bijker, “The Social Construction of Bakelite: Toward a Theory of Invention,” in Social Construction of Technological Systems, 159–194; Wiebe E. Bijker, “The Social Construction of Fluorescent Lighting,” in Shaping Technology/Building Society, 75–102; Wiebe E. Bijker, Of Bicycles, Bakelites, and Bulbs (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995); Wiebe E. Bijker, “Social Construction of Technology,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes (Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 2001), vol. 23, 15,522–15,227

7. This term has been used since the mid-1980s by historians of technology. See, for instance, Donald MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman, eds., Social Shaping of Technology. How the Refrigerator Got Its Hum (Milton Keynes, England: Open University Press, 1985). For a reply, see Trevor Pinch, “The Social Construction of Technology: A Review,” in Technological Change: Methods and Themes in the History of Technology, ed. Robert Fox (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1996), 17–35.

8. Pinch and Bijker, “Social Construction of Facts,” 28–46; Bijker, Of Bicycles, 269–272.

9. Bijker, Of Bicycles, 122–126, 143, 190–196, 260–267; Bijker, “Social Construction of Technology,” 15,526a.

10. Thomas P. Hughes, Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983).

11. Hughes, Networks of Power, 15–17. He has discussed the concept in “Technological Momentum,” in Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism, ed. Merritt Roe Smith and Leo Marx (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994), 101–113.

12. Thomas P. Hughes, American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm (New York: Penguin Books, 1989); Hughes, “Technological Momentum.”

13. Hughes, “Technological Momentum,” 108–109.

14. Alfred D. Chandler, Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1962); Alfred D. Chandler, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press/Harvard University Press, 1977).

For this section I am indebted to Philip Scranton’s review of Alfred D. Chandler, “Scale and Scope,” Technology and Culture 32 (1991): 1102–1104.

15. Alfred D. Chandler, Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990).

16. Ronald H. Coase, “The Nature of the Firm,” Economica 4 (1937): 386–405; Ronald H. Coase, “The Problem of Social Cost,” Journal of Law and Economics 3, no. 1 (1960): 1–44.

17. Douglass C. North, Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 27–35; Douglass C. North, “A Theory of Institutional Change,” in The Microfoundations of Macro-sociology, ed. Michael Hechter (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1983), 190–215; Douglass C. North and John J. Wallis, “Integrating Institutional Change in Economic History: A Transaction Cost Approach,” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 155 (1994): 609–624.

18. The exceptions are the board minutes of the British producers, which are preserved but not accessible. See the Essay on Sources for more information.

19. The male pronoun is used here as no female inventor was found.

Chapter One: Punched Cards and the 1890 United States Census

1. “The Census of the United States,” Scientific American 63:9 (30 August 1890): cover, 132; Robert P. Porter, “The Eleventh Census,” American Statistical Association, New Series 15 (1891): 321–379; T. C. Martin, “Counting a Nation by Electricity,” The Electrical Engineer 12 (11 November 1891): 521–530.

2. Leon E. Truesdell, The Development of Punched Card Tabulation in the Bureau of the Census 1890–1940 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1965); Charles Eames and Ray Eames, A Computer Perspective (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973), 18–27; Geoffrey Austrian, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982); Martin Campbell-Kelly, ICL: A Business and Technical History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), 4–16; Emerson W. Pugh, Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and Its Technology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995), 1–14.

3. Margo J. Anderson, The American Census: A Social History (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988), 99–109.

4. Carroll D. Wright and William C. Hunt, The History and Growth of the United States Census (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1900), 8–12; W. Stull Holt, The Bureau of the Census: Its History, Activities and Organization (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1929), 1–2.

5. U.S. Constitution, art. I, sec. 2, cl. 3.

6. U.S. Constitution, amend.14, sec. 2 (1868).

7. Anderson, American Census, 242.

8. Truesdell, Development, 221.

9. Carroll D. Wright, “Statistics in Colleges,” Publications of the American Economic Association 3 (1888): 5–28; Karl Theodor von Inama-Sternegg, “Der statistische Unterricht,” Allgemeines statistisches Archiv 1 (1890): 12–13.

10. Joseph W. Duncan and William C. Shelton, Revolution in the United States Government Statistics, 1926–1976 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1978), 1.

11. John Cummings, “Statistical Work of the Federal Government of the United States,” The History of Statistics: Their Development and Progress in Many Countries, ed. John Koren (New York: Macmillan, 1918), 573–689; Duncan and Shelton, Revolution, 4–8.

12. Charles F. Gettemy, “The Work of the Several States of the United States in the Field of Statistics,” in History of Statistics, 690–739.

13. John Koren, “The American Statistical Association, 1839–1914,” in History of Statistics, 3–14.

14. Fernand Faure, “The Development and Progress of Statistics in France,” History of Statistics, 217–329, on 291; Eugene Würzburger, “The History and Development of Official Statistics in the German Empire,” in History of Statistics, 333–362, on 339; Athelstane Baines, “The History and Development of Statistics in Great Britain and Ireland,” in History of Statistics, 365–389, on 370; Robert Meyer, “The History and Development of Government Statistics in Austria,” in History of Statistics, 85–122, on 89.

15. Wright and Hunt, History and Growth, 36–40.

16. The number of families in 1840 was not published. Therefore, this number was reconstructed based on the assumption of the average number of members per family being the same in 1840 and 1850. The Sixth Census or Enumeration of the Inhabitants of the United States, as Corrected at the Department of State in 1840 (Washington, DC: Blair and Rivers, 1841); The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850 (Washington, DC: Robert Armstrong, 1853), xl.

17. Seventh Census, xlii–xliii; Report on the Population of the United States of the Eleventh Census: 1890 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1895), part I, 451, and (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office: 1897), part II, 2–5.

18. Martin, “Counting a Nation,” 521.

19. Hunt and Wright, History and Growth, 12–39; Truesdell, Development, 1–4.

20. Herman Hollerith, “An Electric Tabulating System,” School of Mines Quarterly 10 (1889): 238–255, on 244; Charles F. Pidgin, Practical Statistics. A Handbook (Boston: William E. Smythe Company, 1888), 147–154.

21. Charles W. Seaton, Improvement in tabulating devices, [U.S.] Patent 127, 435, filed and issued 1872; W. R. Merriam, “The Evolution of American Census-Taking,” Century Magazine, LXV(1903): 831–842, on 836.

22. “Seaton, Charles William,” entry in The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, 9 (1891), 217–128.

23. Letter from the Secretary of the Interior in relation to an appropriation to C. W. Seaton, 42nd Cong., 2d sess., House Executive Documents, No. 164 (1872); U.S. Congress, Statutes at Large, vol. 17 (1871–1873), 351.

24. Wright and Hunt, History and Growth, 68.

25. John Shaw Billings, “Methods of Tabulating and Publishing Records of Death,” American Public Health Association, Public Health Papers and Reports 11 (1886), 51–66, on 55; John Shaw Billings, “Forms of Tables of Vital Statistics, with Special Reference to the Needs of the Health Department of a City,” American Public Health Association, Public Health Papers and Reports 13 (1887), 203–221, on 205; John Shaw Billings, “Mechanical Methods Used in Compiling Data of the 11th U.S. Census,” Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 40 (1891), 407–409, on 407; Herman Hollerith, “The Electrical Tabulating Machine,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 57 (1894), 678–682, on 678.

26. John Shaw Billings, “Medical Libraries in the United States,” 171–182, in Special Report on Public Libraries in the United States (Washington, DC: Department of the Interior, 1876), 176; John Shaw Billings, “The Mortality Statistics of the Tenth Census,” Transactions of the American Medical Association 32 (1881), 297–303; John Shaw Billings, Report on the Mortality and Vital Statistics of the United States as Returned at the Tenth Census, 1880 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1886), part I, xi–xii.

27. Pidgin, Practical Statistics, 28–61.

28. Hughes, “The Evolution of Large Technological Systems,” in Social Construction in Technological Systems, 51–82, on 60.

29. Report of a Commission Appointed by the Honourable Superintendent of Census (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1889). Reprint by H. Hollerith in box A-832-1, folder: Census, International Business Machines (IBM) Archives, New York.

30. The Pidgin system is described in Pidgin, Practical Statistics, 28–61. A census schedule card is preserved in box A-832-2, folder: Pidgin Company, in IBM Archives. The Hunt system is described in Truesdell, Development, 24–25.

31. Report of a Commission, 11.

32. S. N. D. North, Bureau of the Census, to W. R. Merriam, Tabulating Machine Company (TMC), 28 July 1904, RG-40, NC-54, entry 1, file 67865, National Archives (NA).

33. Anderson, American Census, 242. The figures are deflated through a wholesale price index on all commodities, Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1957 (Washington, DC: Bureau of the Census, 1960), 115.

34. Herman Hollerith, Art of compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 395,781, filed 1887 and issued 1889; Hollerith, “Electric Tabulating System.”

35. In this tabulator version, each counter was reset by turning the hands to zero on each counter, using a knob on the face.

36. Martin, “Counting a Nation,” 528. This figure is an average based on an eight-hour workday.

37. Truesdell, Development, 57–83.

38. Martin, “Counting a Nation,” 522.

39. Porter, “Eleventh Census,” 336.

40. Truesdell, Development, 91, 130–131.

41. Hollerith, “Electric Tabulating System,” 252. Truesdell, Development, 51, claims the wires were soldered to the contact points but supplies no reference.

42. On the whole, the sections on Hollerith are based on John H. Blodgett, Herman Hollerith: Data Processing Pioneer (unpublished thesis, Drexel Institute of Technology, Philadelphia, 1968), 4–63, and Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 1–73.

43. David M. Ellis, James A. Frost, Harold C. Syrett, and Harry J. Carman, A History of New York State (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1967), 461.

44. Terry S. Reynolds, “The Engineer in 19th-Century America,” in The Engineer in America, ed. Terry S. Reynolds (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 7–26, on 20.

45. James Kip Finch, A History of the School of Engineering, Columbia University (New York: Columbia University Press, 1954), 27–41.

46. Blodgett, Herman Hollerith, appendix J; Finch, History of the School, 47–48; Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 349–350; Monte Alan Calvert, The Mechanical Engineer in America, 1930–1910 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1967), 62.

47. Finch, History of the School, 7.

48. Herman Hollerith, “Report on the Steam and Water Power Used in the Manufacture of Iron and Steel,” Tenth Census 1880, vol. 22 (1882).

49. Wright and Hunt, History and Growth, 67–68.

50. H. Hollerith to J. T. Wilson, 7 August 1919, in box A-23-3, IBM Archives.

51. Truesdell, Development, 27.

52. Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to the Present (New York: Basic Books, 1976), 958–959. Design applications were included with inventions until 1876.

53. H. Hollerith to J. T. Wilson, 7 August 1919, in box A-23-3, IBM Archives; K. B. Wilson to W. F. Willcox, 1926, quoted in Walter F. Willcox, “John Shaw Billings and Federal Vital Statistics,” Journal of the American Statistical Association 21 (1926): 256–266, on 262; Merriam, “Evolution of American,” 836.

54. Herman Hollerith, Apparatus for compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 395,783, issued 1889. No mechanical paper strip propulsion is known.

Hollerith filed a patent application for this system of compiling statistics in 1884, which he divided in 1885. Herman Hollerith, Art of compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 395,782, issued 1889 and Herman Hollerith, Apparatus for compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 395,783, issued 1889. At the 1888 renewal the applications were broadened by references to his application (serial no. 140,629), which was issued as Herman Hollerith, Art of compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 395,781, issued 1889.

The 1884 patent application is not preserved in the Patent Case Files, in RG-241, Patent Case File No. 395,782 (1889), NA. The division of the patent in 1885 was probably the result of Hollerith completing his patent application within two years after the filing of his initial patent application, as laid down by the U.S. Patent Act of 8 July 1870, U.S. Congress, Statutes at Large, vol. 16 (1869–1871), 198, sec. 32. In this way it was possible to obtain patent protection before completing an invention. U.S. patent protection lasted from the filing of the initial patent application until seventeen years after the date on which the patent was issued by the Patent Office.

55. Paul Israel, From Machine Shop to Industrial Laboratory: Telegraphy and the Changing Context of American Invention, 1830–1920 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), 75–78.

56. For arguments that Hollerith knew the Jacquard loom, see Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 17.

57. Holt, Bureau of the Census, 26–27.

58. H. Hollerith to A. Meyer, 19 September 1884, box 21, folder 4, Hollerith Papers, Library of Congress (LC).

59. H. Hollerith to A. Meyer, 14 July 1885, box 21, folder 4, Hollerith Papers, LC; Herman Hollerith, Art of compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 395,782, filed 1884 and issued 1889.

60. Wright and Hunt, History and Growth, 68.

61. James H. Collins, “The Story of the Printed Word,” A Popular History of American Invention, in A Popular History of American Invention, ed. Waldemar Kaempffert (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1924), vol. 1, 211–261, on 233–234, 237; “Lanston, Tolbert,” 611, in Dictionary of American Biography, 5 (1932).

62. H. Sebert, “Rapport fait par M. Sebert, au nom du Comité des Art Économiques, sur la machine à calculer, dit Arithmomètre inventée par M. Thomas de Bojano,” Bulletin de la Société d’ Encouragement pour l’Industrie Nationale series 3, 6 (1879), 393–425, on 406.

63. James W. Cortada, Before the Computer: IBM, NCR, Burroughs, and Remington Rand and the Industry They Created, 1865–1956 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993), 27–40.

64. Tolbert Lanston, Adding-machine, [U.S.] Patent 622,157, filed 1894 and issued 1889; Herman Hollerith, Adding and recording machine, [U.S.] Patent 622,470, filed 1895 and issued 1889. It appears from the drawings and the signature of the attorney that Hollerith probably prepared both patent applications. Lanston assigned his patent to Hollerith in 1893 and 1894, RG-241, entry 1009, NA.

65. Herman Hollerith, Electric calculating system, [U.S.] Patent 430,804, filed 1887 and issued 1890. Hollerith, [U.S.] Patent 395,781 (see n 54) was filed in New York in June 1887.

66. Hollerith, “Electric Tabulating System,” 244; H. Hollerith to J. T. Wilson, 7 August 1919, box A-23-3, IBM Archives; Compendium of the Eleventh Census, 1890, 1, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1892, 747.

67. Hollerith, [U.S.] Patent 430,804 (see n 65).

68. Billings, “Mechanical Methods,” 409; Martin, “Counting a Nation,” 529.

69. H. Hollerith to A. Meyer, 14 July 1885, in box 21, folder 4, Hollerith Papers, LC.

70. Correspondence between Clifford J. Maloney and the City Archives, Baltimore, 1965, and Clifford J. Maloney’s notes from 1965, box A-832-4, folder: Census/Baltimore, IBM Archives, New York.

71. H. Hollerith, Keyboard punch, [U.S.] Patent 487,737, filed 1891 and issued 1892. This patent contains two punch constructions; Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 40–41.

72. The principle of a lever-based typewriter is mentioned in George Tilghman Richards, The History and Development of Typewriters (London: Science Museum, 1964), 9–10.

73. Albert G. Love, Eugene L. Hamilton, and Ida L. Hellman, Tabulating Equipment and Army Medical Statistics (Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1958), 40–42; Hollerith, “Electric Tabulating System,” 247–249.

74. A. N. Kiær’s report 30 October 1893, on his voyage to the United States, Kopibok til Statistisk Sentralbyrå for 1893 (Riksarkivet, Oslo) 1426–1436, on 1433; Albert G. Love, “Medical and Casualty Statistics,” in The Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1925), vol. 14, 2, 9; Historical Statistics 1960, 736.

75. A 1890 census clerk’s late anecdotal memoirs may substantiate this. Charles A. Springer, “Data Processing 1890 Style,” Datamation, July 1966, 44.

76. Alfred J. Chandler, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press/Harvard University Press, 1977), 296–297.

77. Report of a Commission, passim.

78. Louis C. Hunter, A History of Industrial Power in the United States, 1870–1930 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985), vol. 2, 265–266; Steven Lubar, Infoculture (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993), 124.

79. Gilbert C. Fite and Jim E. Reese, An Economic History of the United States (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973), 433.

80. H. Hollerith to G. F. Swain, 6 August 1907, folder: Tabulating Machines, George F. Swain Collection, Baker Library, Harvard Business School.

81. Blodgett, Herman Hollerith, 52.

82. Martin Campbell-Kelly, “Information Technology and Organizational Change in the British Census, 1801–1911,” Information Systems Research, 7 (1996), 22–36, 35.

83. Thomas P. Hughes, Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1983), 14–15, 22–23.

Chapter Two: New Users, New Machines

1. Alfred D. Chandler, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press/Harvard University Press, 1977), 81–121, 277–279, 485; JoAnne Yates, Control through Communication: The Rise of System in American Management (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1989), 4–9.

2. James W. Cortada, Before the Computer: IBM, NCR, Burroughs, and Remington Rand and the Industry They Created, 1865–1956 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993), 32–33, 40; Yates, Control through Communication, 80–85.

3. Robert P. Porter, A Report of Examination and Review of the Census Office, in 52nd Cong., 1st sess., 1892, ex. doc. No. 69, 11.

4. Herman Hollerith, Machine for compiling or tabulating statistics, [U.S.] Patent 26,129, filed 1892 and issued 1894; Herman Hollerith, Machine for tabulating statistics, [U.S.] Patent 526,130, filed 1892 and issued 1894.

5. For a late anecdotal story on mercury cup problems, see Charles A. Springer, “Data Processing 1890 Style,” Datamation, July 1966, 44.

6. Liber Patent Transfer Volumes, 1836–1954, vol. D-46 (1893), 87–88, vol. H-50 (1894), 234–235, vol. J-56, 3–5, entry 1009, RG-241, National Archives (NA).

7. Patent Case File 622,157 (1894–1899), entry 9A, RG-241, NA.

8. Herman Hollerith, Electric calculating system, [U.S.] Patent 430,804, filed 1887 and issued 1890.

9. C. Wright to H. Hollerith, 12 February 1894, box 10, folder 1, Hollerith Papers, Library of Congress. On 7 March 1894 Hollerith filed a patent application on an adding tabulator, Index to Assignments of Patents 1837–1923, vol. H-24 (1897–98), 71, RG-241, National Archives. This patent was never awarded, and the application did not survive. See also annual lists of awarded patents and RG-241, NA.

The adder is described in Herman Hollerith, Electrical calculating system, [U.S.] Patent 518,604, filed 1892 and issued 1894; Herman Hollerith, Tabulating system, [U.S.] Patent 518,885, filed 1893; Herman Hollerith, Tabulating system, [U.S.] Patent 518,886, filed 1893 and issued 1894.

10. Geoffrey Austrian, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982), 102, 104.

11. Bulletin de l’Institut International de Statistique 9:2 (1895), lxii–lxiv, 249–257.

12. E. J. Moorhead, Our Yesterdays: The History of the Actuary Profession in North America, 1809–1979 (Shaumburg, IL: Actuarial Society of America, 1989), 63; Daniel H. Wells, “Report of a Special Committee of the Council on Suggestions Regarding the Investigation of the Mortality Experience of Life Insurance Companies,” Transactions of the Actuarial Society of America 2 (1892), 395–398.

13. Arthur Hunter, “Note on an Approximative Method of Making Mortality Investigations,” Transactions of the Actuary Society of America 10 (1907), 361–367, on 361.

14. H. Hollerith to J. M. Craig, Metropolitan Life Insurance, 1 April 1889, box A-832-2, folder: Metropolitan Life, International Business Machines (IBM) Archives.

15. Moorhead, Our Yesterdays, 337. Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 82–83, Hollerith took this initiative of a demonstration to actuaries, which Austrian substantiates in an article in New York Tribune, 25 April 1890. However, this substantiation is inferior to the preceding note.

16. David Parks Fackler, “Regarding the Mortality Investigation, Instituted by the Actuarial Society of America and Now in Progress,” Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, 37 (1902), 1–15, on 14–15; Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 83.

17. The author was not granted access to the archives of the Prudential Insurance Company or to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.

18. The card was 4½ by 2¾ inches (11.4 × 7.0 cm).

19. John K. Gore, Perforating machine, [U.S.] Patent 516,199, filed 1893 and issued 1894; Fackler, “Regarding the Mortality,” 11, figure 4. Because of the differences in the cards, the Hollerith pantograph punch could not be applied.

20. Moorhead, Our Yesterdays, 338; Fackler, “Regarding the Mortality,” 11–15; Yates, Control through Communication, 14–15.

21. Fackler, “Regarding the Mortality,” 13; Moorhead, Our Yesterdays, 338, quotes the excessive figure of 250 cards per minute, which is not substantiated.

22. J. K. Gore, Prudential, to H. Hollerith, 13 May 1901, box 10, folder 1, Hollerith Papers, Library of Congress (LC).

23. J. K. Gore to H. Hollerith, 23 May 1901, in LC, Hollerith Papers, box 10, folder 1, Hollerith Papers, Library of Congress; Fackler, “Regarding the Mortality”; Moorhead, Our Yesterdays, 64.

24. Herman Hollerith in “The Electrical Tabulating Machine,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 57 (1894), 678–682, on 689; “Hollerith’s Electrical Tabulating Machine,” The Railroad Gazette, 19 April 1895, 246–248.

25. M. Riebenack, Assistant Comptroller, Office of Comptroller, General Office, Pennsylvania Railroad Company, reports dated 4 January 1904, 14 January 1904, Hagley Museum and Archive, Wilmington, DE (Hagley), acc. 1807: Pennsylvania Railroad Company, roll M-88, BF-172: Accounting Department, acc. 1807: Pennsylvania Railroad Company, Hagley; J. S. Donaldson, “Extract from a Paper Read before the Association of American Railway Accounting Officers” (New York: The Tabulating Machine Company, c. 1913), box A-832-2, folder: TMC/Railroads, IBM Archives.

26. A punched card is reproduced in “Hollerith’s Electric Tabulating Machine,” 246.

27. “Recording Waybill Statistics by Machinery,” The Railroad Gazette, 34 (1903), 526–527.

28. Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 124–127, 128–129.

29. H. Hollerith to T. Talcott, 20 August 1896, box 21, folder 4, Hollerith Papers, Library of Congress; The Railroad Gazette, 31 January 1896, 80; 9 October 1896, 709; T. Talcott letters according to Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 129–130, 136–139.

30. Herman Hollerith, Tabulating apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 677,214, filed 1900 and issued 1901; A. E. Gray, IBM Development Manual. Book I: Numerical Tabulators (Endicott, NY: IBM, 1956), box A-25-2, folder: History/num.tab., IBM Archives; John Hayward, IBM History (Endicott, NY: IBM, 1957), 13, IBM Archives. It should be mentioned that there is a contradiction between the introduction of this tabulator at New York Central and Hudson River Railway in 1896 and a patent being first filed for it in 1900. This contradiction cannot be resolved through the available sources.

31. No patent was issued in the United States.

32. Herman Hollerith, Apparatus for perforating record cards, [U.S.] Patent 682,197, filed and issued 1901.

33. Frederick S. Blackall Jr., A History of the Taft-Peirce Manufacturing Company, manuscript 1946, 8–9, Rhode Island Historical Society.

34. Index to Assignments of Patents, 1837–1923, vol. H-24 (1897–1898), 71, entry 1010, RG-241, National Archives. The patent was never granted, and the application did not survive.

35. Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 131–132.

36. Liber Patent Transfer Volumes, 1836–1954, vol. E-53, 382–385, entry 1009, NG-241, National Archives; Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 34.

37. Gerri Lynn Flanzraich, “The Role of the Library Bureau and Gayloard Brothers in the Development of Library Technology, 1876–1930” (PhD diss., Columbia University, 1990), 6–7, 89–93, 96–98.

38. Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 152–159.

39. Liber Patent Transfer Volumes, 1836–1954, vol. P-59, 178–181, entry 1009, RG-241, NA; Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 165–166; Flanzraich, Library Bureau, 98–99.

40. Blackall, History of the Taft-Peirce, 9–14.

41. A sorting box is shown in Charles F. Pidgin, Method of compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 719,365, filed 1899 and issued 1903; “Charles Felton Pidgin,” in National Cyclopædia of American Biography, 13 (1906), 479.

42. Charles F. Pidgin, Keyboard for tabulating-machines, [U.S.] Patent 740,042, filed 1899 and issued 1903; Charles F. Pidgin, Apparatus for recording statistical data, [U.S.] Patent 755,168, filed 1899 and issued 1904; Charles F. Pidgin, Apparatus for compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 755,695, filed 1899 and issued 1904.

43. Pidgin, Patent 740,042 (see n 42 above); Charles F. Pidgin, Calculating machine, [U.S.] Patent 735,291, filed 1899 and issued 1903; Liber Patent Transfer Volumes, 1836–1954, vol. P-82, 491–493, entry 1009, RG-241, National Archives; Pinkerton report, box A-832-2, folder: TMC/Pinkerton investigation, 1899–1902, IBM Archives; H. Hollerith to S. G. Metcalfe, 23 May 1899, box A-832-1, folder: Correspondence/1899, IBM Archives.

44. Report of the Commission Appointed by the Director of Census on the Competitive Test of Methods of Tabulation (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1899), file 67865, entry 1, RG-54, NA.

45. Prices in letter from S. N. D. North, Bureau of the Census, to Tabulating Machine Company (TMC), 28 July, 1904, file 67865, entry 1, RG-40, National Archives. Wholesale price index in Historical Statistics 1960, 115, 117.

46. Gore had no influence on the choice of his system by the Actuary Society of America for a mortality investigation (see n 23). J. K. Gore to H. Hollerith, 23 May 1901, box 10, folder 1, Hollerith Papers, LC.

47. Cortada, Before the Computer, 32, 40.

48. Correspondence, box 10, folder 1, Hollerith Papers, Library of Congress.

49. F. H. Wines, Census Office, to W. R. Merriam, Census Office, 11 June 1900; C. F. Pidgin to F. H. Wines, Census Office, 16 July 1900; S. N. D. North, Census Office, to W. R. Merriam, Census Office, 26 July 1900; S. N. D. North, Census Office, to W. R. Merriam, Census Office, 27 July 1900; S. N. D. North, Census Office, to F. H. Wines, Census Office, 27 July 1900; I. Hall, Census Office, to S. N. D. North, Census Office, 27 July 1900; W. F. Willer, Census Office, to W. R. Merriam, Census Office, 8 August 1900; L. G. Powers, Census Office, to W. R. Merriam, Census Office, 8 August 1900; F. H. Wines, Census Office, to W. R. Merriam, Census Office, 9 August 1900; all in box 1, folder 1-17, files No. 1–77, RG-29, NA; Harry Turner Newcomb, Mechanical Tabulation of the Statistics of Agriculture on the Twelfth Census of the United States (Philadelphia: Patterson & White Co., 1901).

50. Affidavits of Herman Hollerith, 22 January 1910, LeGrand Powers, 24 February 1910, in Tabulating Machine Co. v. E. D. Durand, box 741A, Equity Case No. 29,065, Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, Washington National Records Center, Suitland, MD.

51. Herman Hollerith, Tabulating apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 685,608, filed and issued 1901; Gray, IBM Development Manual, 13–16.

52. Edward W. Byrn, “The Mechanical Work of the Twelfth Census,” Scientific American, 19 April 1902, cover, 275; affidavit of H. Momsen, 3 March 1910, box 741A, Equity Case No. 29,065, Washington National Records Center.

53. Tabulating Machine Co. v. E. D. Durand.

54. John H. Blodgett, Herman Hollerith: Data Processing Pioneer (unpublished thesis, Drexel Institute of Technology, Philadelphia, 1968), 85–107.

55. Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 221–237.

56. Margo J. Anderson, The American Census. A Social History (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988), 116–123.

57. S. N. D. North to W. R. Merriam, TMC, 28 July 1904; V. H. Metcalf to President T. Roosevelt, 13 February 1905, file 67865, entry 1, NC-54, RG-54, NA; Annual Report of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, 1904 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1904), 23–25; H. Hollerith to S. G. Metcalfe, 3 August 1904, 11 August 1904, two letters dated 20 September 1904, 22 September 1904, 26 September 1904, box 1, folder 2, Hollerith Papers, LC.

58. H. Hollerith to S. N. D. North, 29 September 1905, printed copy, box 34, folder 7, Hollerith Papers, LC; letter, S. N. D. North to H. Hollerith, 3 April 1905, letter, H. Hollerith to S. N. D. North, 11 April 1905, letters, S. N. D. North to V. H. Metcalf, 18 April 1905, letter, S. N. D. North to H. Hollerith, 22 April 1905, file 67865, entry 1, NC-54, RG-40, NA; Annual Report of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, 1904, 24–25; Annual Report of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, 1905 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1905), 25.

59. S. N. D. North to C. F. Pidgin, 22 April 1905, S. N. D. North to C. F. Pidgin, 25 April 1905, S. N. D. North to Secretary of Commerce and Labor, 13 June 1905, S. N. D. North to Secretary of Commerce and Labor, 14 June 1905; S. N. D. North to Secretary of Commerce and Labor, 5 October 1905, Acting Chief Clerk, Census Bureau, to Chief Clerk, Department of Commerce and Labor, 16 October 1905, all in file 67865, entry 1, NC-54, RG-40, NA.

This was the only possible contract, as Pidgin was the offered the sole tender for processing equipment in a competition in 1905. H. Hollerith to S. N. D. North, 29 September 1905, printed copy, box A-832-1, folder: Hollerith/Corresp., IBM Archives.

60. Undated balance sheets in box 12, folder 3, Hollerith Papers, LC.

61. H. Hollerith to J. B. Lunger, New York Life Insurance Co., 20 April 1900, box 10, folder 1, Hollerith Papers, LC; D. H. Wells, Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Co., to H. Hollerith, 12 December 1900, box 21, folder 4, Hollerith Papers, LC.

62. Correspondence between Hollerith and Library Bureau, Prudential Insurance Company, and Travelers Insurance Company, March–May 1901, box 10, folder 1, Hollerith Papers, LC.

63. Accounting by Electricity (Washington, DC: Tabulating Machine Company, 1903).

64. 3¼ by 7 inches (8.3 × 18.7 cm).

65. Herman Hollerith, Registering apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 777,209, filed 1903 and issued 1904; Herman Hollerith, Apparatus for use in tabulating systems, [U.S.] Patent 12,523, reissued 1906.

66. Gray, IBM Development Manual, 16–25; Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 242–244.

67. Thomas P. Hughes, American Genesis. A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm (New York: Penguin, 1989), 150–180.

68. Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 242.

69. H. Hollerith to S. G. Metcalfe, 27 April 1903, 18 June 1903, 29 June 1903, 30 June 1903, in box A-832-1, folder: Hollerith/Corresp., IBM Archives. In a 1930s antitrust suit, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled tie-in sales illegal, and they were abandoned by IBM. Calculation based on an undated printed balance sheet in box 10, folder 9, Hollerith Papers, LC.

70. Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 251–257.

71. Tabulating Machine Company, “Rentals and Card Revenues,” box 10, folder 7, Hollerith Papers, Library of Congress. The 1908 figure is based on records from June to December, as only they are preserved.

72. Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 255. Simultaneously, the company’s nominal stocks were increased from $100,000 to $500,000 to be more in accordance with the assets.

73. Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1957 (Washington, DC: Bureau of the Census, 1960), 736; Oscar Theodore Barck and Nelson Manfred Blake, Since 1900: A History of the United States in Our Times (New York: MacMillan Publishing, 1974), 156–159.

74. Albert G. Love, Medical and Casualty Statistics, vol. 15: Statistics, part 2 of The Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1925), 327–328, 495–496; Albert G. Love, Eugene L. Hamilton, and Ida Levin Hellman, Tabulating Equipment and Army Medical Statistics (Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1958), 40, 52–76.

75. Barck and Blake, Since 1900, 156–159; Jonathan R. T. Hughes, American Economic History (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1987), 413–416.

76. W. S. Gifford, “Realizing Industrial Preparedness,” Scientific American, 114 (3 June 1916), 576, 598, 600.

77. Bernard M. Baruch, American Industry in the War: A Report of the War Industries Board (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1941), 38–46.

78. “Compilation of Operating Statistics Reports,” Railway Age, 66 (1919), 1353–1360; Walter D. Hines, War History of American Railroads (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1928), 68.

79. H. Hollerith to J. T. Wilson, 7 August 1919, in box A-23-3, IBM Archives.

80. William E. Freeman, Automatic, Mechanical, Punching, Counting, Sorting, Tabulating and Printing Machines, Adaptable to Various Lines of Accounting and Statistical Work Essential for Public Service Corporations, with Particular Reference to Improvements in the Art of Mechanical Accounting (New York: National Electric Light Association, 1915), 13.

81. Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 238–241.

82. H. Hollerith to G. F. Swain, 6 August 1907, folder: Tabulating Machines 1906–1907, George F. Swain Collection, Baker Library, Harvard Business School.

Chapter Three: U.S. Challengers to Hollerith

1. Michael Chatfield, A History of Accounting Thoughts (Huntington, NY: Robert F. Krieger Publishing Company, 1977), 64–76; Margery W. Davies, Woman’s Place Is at the Typewriter: Office Work and Office Workers 1870–1930 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982), 9–27; JoAnne Yates, Control through Communication: The Rise of System in American Management (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989), 21–39, 56–63.

2. Alba M. Edwards, Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940: Population: Comparative Occupational Statistics for the United States, 1870 to 1940 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1943), 113, 121.

3. C. O. Price, “Calculating Machine in Railroad Accounting: A Contrast of Present Accounting Methods with Those of Ten Years Ago,” Railway Age, 64 (1919), 972–976, on 972.

4. George Nichols Engler, “The Typewriter Industry: The Impact of a Significant Technological Innovation” (PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles: 1969), 10–21, 24–28, 156.

5. Dorr E. Felt, Adding machine, [U.S.] Patent 371,496, filed and issued 1887; “Felt, Dorr Eugene,” The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, New York: James T. White, 1955), 23–25; Peggy Aldrich Kidwell, “‘Yours for Improvement’— The Adding Machines of Chicago, 1884–1930,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 23, no. 3 (2001): 7; James W. Cortada, Before the Computer: IBM, NCR, Burroughs, and Remington Rand and the Industry They Created, 1865–1956 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993), 39–41.

6. William S. Burroughs, Calculating machine, [U.S.] Patent 388,116, filed 1885 and issued 1888; William S. Burroughs, Calculating machine, [U.S.] Patent 388,119, filed 1887 and issued 1888; Ray Abele, The Burroughs Story, manuscript 1975, 1.1–3.23, box 2, folder 2, Collection 90, Charles Babbage Institute, Minneapolis, ME; Peggy Aldrich Kidwell, “The Adding Machine Fraternity at St. Louis: Creating a Center of Invention, 1880–1920,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 22:2 (2000): 4–21, on 8–11; Cortada, Before the Computer, 31–32, 35.

7. D. E. Felt, Tabulating-machine, [U.S.] Patent, 628,176, filed 1898 and issued 1899; D. E. Felt, Tabulating-machine, [U.S.] Patent 644,287, filed 1899 and issued 1890; D. E. Felt, Tabulating-machine, [U.S.] Patent 694,955, filed 1900 and issued 1902; Cortada, Before the Computer, 36–37.

8. Clairborne W. Gooch, Adding machine, [U.S.] Patent, 825,205, filed 1905 and issued 1906; Abele, Burroughs Story, 4.6, 4.23.

9. Charles J. Bashe, Lyle R. Johnson, John H. Palmer, and Emerson W. Pugh, IBM’s Early Computers (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986), 12, for more information on the use of complements in subtraction.

10. H. G. Schnackel and Henry C. Lang, Accounting by Machine Methods: The Design and Operation of Modern Systems (New York: Ronald Press Company, 1929), 24.

11. Abele, Burrough’s Story, 5.9–5.11.

12. Werner Lange, Buchungsmaschinen: Meisterwerke feinmechanischer Datenverarbeitung 1910 bis 1960 (Munich: Oldenbourg Verlag, 1986), 63; Kidwell, “Adding Machine Fraternity,” 15–16.

13. Louis Couffignal, Les Machines à Calculer, leur Principes, leur Évolution (Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1933), 63.

14. H. S. McCormack, “Keeping Books by Machine: The Punched Card as a Saver of Brain Energy,” Scientific American, 108 (1913): 194–195, on 195.

15. Thomas P. Hughes, Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1983), 335–341; Giuliani Amato, Antitrust and the Bounds of Power: The Dilemma of Liberal Democracy in the History of the Market (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 1997), 7–19.

16. Consolidated Patent Act of 1870, U.S. Congress, Statutes at Large, vol. 16 (1869–1871), 198, sec. 22; Ulf Anderfelt, International Patent-Legislation and Developing Countries (The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1971), 10–25.

17. For example, Secretary of Commerce and Labor to the U.S. President, 13 February 1905, and Census Director to Secretary of Commerce and Labor, 15 April 1905, both in file 67865, NC-54, entry 1, RG-40, National Archives (NA).

18. During the first two years, the Census Bureau machine constructions took place in an existing machine shop at the Bureau of Standards, but in 1907 a new machine shop was equipped in the Census Bureau.

19. Annual Report of Secretary of Commerce and Labor, 1905 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1905), 25.

20. Regarding the invention of the sorter, see H. Hollerith, Tabulating apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 685,608, filed and issued 1901; regarding the invention of the punch, see H. Hollerith, Apparatus for perforating record cards, [U.S.] Patent 682,197, filed and issued 1901. These key patents eventually became the basis for patent litigation in Germany.

21. Agreement by James Powers, 19 July 1907, file: James Powers, National Personnel Records Center, St. Louis, MO (NPRC).

22. “Memorandum Re. Persons Employed under the Appropriation ‘Tabulating Statistics,’ Census Office,” 3 May 1909, file 67865, NC-54, entry 1, RG-40, NA.

23. Charles W. Speicer, Record element for tabulating systems, [U.S.] Patent 1,212,727, filed 1911 and issued 1917; Charles W. Speicer, Cleaning-tank, [U.S.] Patent 1,929,407, filed 1914 and issued 1919; correspondence between Spicer Tabulating Machine Company, and His Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO), London, 1912, “Hire of Sorting, Punching and Tabulating Machines, 1912–1915, STAT 12/14/1, Public Record Office, London.

24. Powers became a United States citizen in 1907. James Powers to Census Bureau, 9 March 1909, file: James Powers, NPRC; James Powers’ passport application 7 October 1913, in NA, RG-59, Passport Records, Certificate No. 16,686, roll 196, M-1490, RG-59, NA.

25. James Powers, Coin controlled photographic apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 565,297, filed 1895 and issued 1896; James Powers, Machine for cutting toothpicks, [U.S.] Patent 517,625, filed and issued 1894; James Powers, Bread or cake box, [U.S.] Patent 690,874, filed 1901 and issued 1902; James Powers, Pad-support, [U.S.] Patent 748,005, filed and issued 1903; James Powers, Pad-holder, [U.S.] Patent 748,006, filed and issued 1903; James Powers, Automatic photographic apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 754,090, filed 1903 and issued 1904.

26. According to the printed patents, Powers assigned two out of his six patents issued before 1907 to different companies (1896 and 1904). Before 1911, there is no entry for Powers in the Patent and Trademark Office assignment records. In his application for work in the Census Bureau, Powers did not mention an ability to get inventions developed for production, which is notable because of his subsequent weakness in this field; James Powers to Census Bureau, 9 March 1909, in his NPRC file.

27. NPRC file: James Powers; James Powers, Machine for compiling and sorting statistics, [U.S.] Patent 1,061,118, filed 1909 and issued 1913; M. D. Davies, General Services Administration, to R. H. Schellenberg, IBM, 11 August 1969; Richard H. Schellenberg, “Final Report on James Powers” (1969), copies of both in box 1, B/5/B, National Archive for the History of Computing, Manchester, England.

28. Census Director to the Secretary of Commerce, 18 April 1905, file 67865, NC-54, entry 1, RG-40, NA.

The next section is mainly based on Report of Director of the Census Bureau, 1906 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office [GPO], 1906), 24; Report of Director of the Census Bureau, 1907 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1907), 20; Report of Director of the Census Bureau, 1908 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1909), 19–25; Report of Secretary of Commerce and Labor for 1909, House Doc. No. 109, 61st Cong., 2nd sess., December 1909, 29–30; Report of Director of the Census Bureau for 1909 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1909), 18–20; Report of Secretary of Commerce and Labor for 1910, House Doc. No. 1008, 61st Cong., 3rd sess., November 1910, 41–42; Report of Director of the Census Bureau for 1910, House Doc. No. 1008, 61st Cong., 3rd sess., December 1910, 139–141; Report of Secretary of Commerce and Labor for 1911, House Doc. No. 122, 62nd Cong., 2nd sess., January 1912, 51–52; Report of Director of the Census Bureau, 1911, House Doc. No. 122, 62nd Cong. 3rd sess., December 1911, 134–142; 10th Annual Report of Secretary of Commerce and Labor, Fiscal Year 1912 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1912), 54–55; Annual Report of Director of the Census Bureau, Fiscal Year 1912 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1913), 10–15; Edward Dana Durand, “Tabulation by Mechanical Means: Their Advantages and Limitations,” 15th International Congress on Hygiene and Demography. Transactions (Washington, DC: Author, 1912), vol. 6, 83–90; H. Hamilton Talbot, “Counting Our People by Machine,” Scientific American 11 September 1909, 176; “Handling the Census Records of the Whole United States,” American Machinist 33 (1910), 809–811.

29. Herman Hollerith, Art of compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 395,781, filed 1887 and issued 1889; Herman Hollerith, Art of compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 395,782, filed 1884 and issued 1889; Herman Hollerith, Apparatus for compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 395,783, filed 1884 and issued 1889.

30. Memorandum for the Secretary [of Commerce and Labor], 6 July 1907, copy in Report of Progress on Tab. Mach. and Integrating Counter, undated, RG-29, box 1, folders 1–6, PI-161, entry 149, RG-29, NA.

31. S. N. D. North to Secretary of Commerce and Labor, 3 May 1907, J. Powers to S. N. D. North, 28 January 1908, both in file: James Powers, NPRC; “Memorandum for the Director [of the Census],” 25 April 1909, file 67865, NC-54, entry 1, RG-40, NA.

32. The four remaining columns indicated the enumeration district and were punched separately.

33. “An Interesting Bending Fixture Job,” American Machinist 33 (1910), 959–960; James Powers, Combined punching and counting mechanism, [U.S.] Patent 992,245, filed 1908 and issued 1911; James Powers, Perforating-machine, [U.S.] Patent 992,246, filed 1908 and issued 1911.

34. Reports in box 2, folders 2–9, PI-161, entry 149, RG-29, NA.

35. James Powers, Machine for compiling and sorting statistics, [U.S.] Patent 1,061,118, filed 1909 and issued 1913.

36. “Memorandum for the Solicitor,” Bureau of the Census Disbursing Clerk, 21 May 1909, box A-832, folder: Census, International Business Machine (IBM) Archives.

37. Opinion of Court, 14 March 1910, and Judgment, 23 May 1912, in Tabulating Machine Co. v. E. D. Durand, Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, Equity Case No. 29,065, box 741A, Washington National Records Center, Suitland, MD. The patent is Herman Hollerith, Registering apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 777,209, filed 1903, issued 1904, and reissued as Herman Hollerith, Apparatus for use in tabulating systems, [U.S.] Patent, 12,523, filed and issued 1906.

38. “Memorandum for the Secretary [of Commerce and Labor],” 6 July 1907, copy in Report of Progress on Tab. Mach. and Integrating Counter, undated, box 1, folder 6, PI-161 Entry 149, RG-29, NA.

39. “Memorandum Relative to Purchase and Rental of Machines for Tabulating Agricultural Data,” by W. F. Willoughby, 9 May 1910, file 67001/10, NC-54, entry 1, RG-40, NA; “Mechanical Equipment of the Census Bureau,” 1 November 1910, box 15, folder 7, PI-161, entry 145, RG-29, NA; “Report on Calculating Machines for Use in the Bureau of the Census,” 5 December 1910, box 14, folder 3, PI-161, entry 145, RG-29, NA.

40. J. A. Stewart, “Electricity and the Census: A Glance at the Machines that Make Our Decennial Inventory a Matter of Weeks Instead of Years,” Scientific American, 31 January 1920, 109.

41. Herman Hollerith, Tabulating apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 685,608, filed and issued 1901, basic sorter patent; Herman Hollerith, Registering apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 777,209, filed 1903 and issued 1904, horizontal sorter; for court case annotation, see note 37. The last patent was reissued as Herman Hollerith, Apparatus for use in tabulating systems, [U.S.] Patent 12,523, filed and reissued 1906.

42. O. P. Braitmayer to S. C. Metcalf, 27 March 1914, box 10, folder “Business Corresp. June–August 1914,” Hollerith Papers, Library of Congress (LC). “Re whether the work of developing card tabulating machines in the Bureau of the census machine shop should be continued,” 24 June to 3 July 1924, file 67001/24, entry 1, RG-40, National Archives; Report of Progress on Tab. Mach. and Integrating Counter (1913–1918), box 1, folder 6, PI-161 entry 149, RG-29, NA.

43. E. M. LaBoiteaux, “Memorandum for the Director [of the Census],” 10 August 1917, box 1, folder 6, PI-161, entry 149, RG-29, NA; Leon E. Truesdell, The Development of Punched Card Tabulation in the Bureau of the Census 1890–1940 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1965), 139–142, 161–169, 195–196.

44. A. Ross Eckler, The Bureau of the Census (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972), 112–115.

45. Friedrich W. Kistermann, “Locating the Victims: The Nonrole of Punched Card Technology and Census Work,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 19 (1997): 31–45, on 33–34.

46. J. Powers to E. D. Durand, 16 March 1911, file: James Powers, National Personnel Records Center; Powers assigned his patents to Powers Accounting Machine Company, Liber Patent Transfer Volumes, 1836–1954, vol. X-87 (1911), 48–50, vol. C-91, 107–113, entry 1009, RG-241, NA; J. T. Ferry, ed., “A History of the Sperry Rand and Remington Rand Corporations, and Their Predecessors, With Emphasis on Tabulating Machine Equipment,” typescript 1964, acc. 1825, Hagley Museum and Archive, Wilmington DE.

47. James Powers, Keyboard for perforating-machines and the like, [U.S.] Patent 1,086,397, filed 1912 and issued 1914; James Powers, Perforating machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,138,314, filed 1913 and issued 1915.

48. William E. Freeman, “Automatic Mechanical Punching, Counting, Sorting, Tabulating and Printing Machines Adaptable to Various Lines of Accounting and Statistical Work Essential for Public Service Corporations with Particular Reference to Improvements in the Art of Mechanical Accounting.” Paper presented at the annual convention of the National Electric Light Association, San Francisco, CA, 7–11 June 1915.

49. Freeman, “Automatic Mechanical Punching,” 24–28.

50. James Powers, Tabulating machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,224,411, filed 1912 and issued 1917; “Remington Rand Inc.—Development and Growth,” in Ferry, “A History of the Sperry Rand,” 8.

51. “Powers Systemet,” System, 1930: 5, 6–7; Lars Heide interviews with Keld Pedersen, formerly the Danish Powers agency, 1985–1986.

52. The American-Canadian Mortality Investigation, Based on the Experience of Life Insurance Companies of the United States and Canada during the Years 1900 to 1915, Inclusive on Policies Issued from 1843 to 1914, Inclusive (New York: Actuarial Society of America, 1918), 1–10.

53. Freeman, “Automatic Mechanical Punching,” 30; H. Nielsen, “Hulkort,” Købstadforeningens Tidsskrift, 1950/51, 416.

54. From 1908 to 1911, W. W. Lasker filed at least fourteen applications for patents on typewriter inventions, Index to Assignments of Patents 1837–1923, vol. L-18 (1908–10), 149, 211, 268, vol. L-19 (1910–1912), 273, RG-241, National Archives.

55. See, for example, Hans Goerlitz (Berlin, Germany), Adding and sorting machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,223,690, filed 1915 and issued 1917; Robert Neil Williams (London, England), Tabulating machine and cards therefor, [U.S.] Patent 1,274,484, filed 1915 and issued 1918; Robert Neil Williams (London, England), Perforating-machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,311,544, filed 1915 and issued 1919; Charles Foster (Croyden, England), Tabulating-machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,274,528, filed 1917 and issued 1918; Harold D. Penney, Total-printing offset mechanism, [U.S.] Patent 1,317,454, filed 1916 and issued 1919; Harold D. Penney and Joshua E. Davidson, Electrical non-stop card-tabulator printer, [U.S.] Patent 1,376,572, filed 1917 and issued 1921.

56. James Powers, Printing tabulator, [U.S.] Patent 1,245,503, filed 1914 and issued 1917. Lasker’s role in building the improved Powers tabulator from 1913 is not clear and no definitive source is known. Powers filed the patent, which does not prove that Lasker did not play an important role in the process. The company history attributes a big role to Lasker but this could have been influenced by Lasker’s subsequent role in the company. “Remington Rand Inc.—Development and Growth,” in Ferry, A History of the Sperry Rand, 8.

57. James Powers, Statistical-card-verifying machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,203,263, filed 1914 and issued 1916; Freeman, Automatic Mechanical Punching, 24.

58. James Powers, Tabulator printer for statistical purposes (stop card), [U.S.] Patent 1,245,502, filed 1913 and issued 1917; James Powers, Automatic total-taking mechanism of accounting-machines (stop card and total card), [U.S.] Patent 1,245,506, filed 1915 and issued 1917; Freeman, “Automatic Mechanical Punching,” 31; “Remington Rand Inc.—Development and Growth,” in Ferry, “History of the Sperry Rand,” 9–10.

59. James Powers, Combined type-writer and perforating machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,271,614, filed 1914 and issued 1918; James Powers, Twelve-key hand punch, [U.S.] Patent 1,272,089, filed 1915 and issued 1918; James Powers, Perforating-machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,299,022, filed 1916 and issued 1919; “Remington Rand Inc.—Development and Growth,” in Ferry, “History of the Sperry Rand,” 8.

60. William W. Lasker, Sorting-machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,315,370, filed 1918 and issued 1919; Thomas O’Keefe, “Chronological History of the Tabulating Machines Division,” in Ferry, “A History of the Sperry Rand.” The year 1919 is provided from “A Short History of Powers Samas 1919–1950,” box 1, B/5/5, National Archive for the History of Computing, Manchester, England.

61. William W. Lasker, Rotary card sorter, [U.S.] Patent 1,198,971, filed 1917 and issued 1919.

62. Patent assignments between Powers Accounting Machine Company and Edward P. Meany, Convent, NJ, 31 July 1913, Liber Patent Transfer Volumes, 1836–1954, vol. H-93 (1913), 58–61, entry 1009, RG-241, NA; W. Heiddinger to F. Kraus, 13 June 1918, 6–7, file: I.HA/Rep. 120 C VIII 1, Nr.84, adhib.18, Beiheft 2104, Geheimes Staatsarchiv, Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin; letter, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Addier- und Sortiermaschinen to Preußische Handelsministerium (Prussian Ministry of Commerce), 13 March 1918, file: I.HA/Rep. 120 C VIII 1, Nr.84, adhib.18, Beiheft 2106, Geheimes Staatsarchiv; Powers Accounting Machine Company assigned patents to Peoples Trust Company, New York, as mortgage, Liber Patent Transfer Volumes, 1836–1954, vol. Z-99 (1916), 84–87, entry 1009, RG-241, NA.

63. “Chronological History of the Migrations-Management-etc.,” in Ferry, “History of the Sperry Rand.”

64. James Powers, Wheel-chain for vehicles, [U.S.] Patent 1,391,402, filed 1919 and issued 1922; James Powers, Toothpick cutter and dispenser, [U.S.] Patent 1,436,528, filed 1919 and issued 1922; James Powers, Trench digger, [U.S.] Patent 1,580,570, filed 1921 and issued 1926; James Powers, Self starting automatic total taking mechanism, [U.S.] Patent 1,836,039, filed 1924 and issued 1931; James Powers, Selecting machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,782,442, filed 1926 and issued 1930.

65. Assignments, James Powers to Powers Accounting Machine Company, 21 October 1924, 11 May 11 1925, Index to Assignments of Patents, 1837–1923, vol. P-32 (1924–1925), 145, 291, entry 27, RG-241, NA; J. Powers to W. S. James, Powers Accounting Machine Co., 7 December 1925, H. J. Pritchard to J. Powers, 5 January 1926, J. Powers to H. J. Pritchard, 26 January 1926, H. J. Pritchard to J. Powers, 10 February 1926, object no. 1992.3214.03, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

66. James Powers, Tool for applying glaziers points, [U.S.] Patent 1,028,778, filed 1911 and issued 1912; James Powers, Apparatus for making and vending sanitary cups, [U.S.] Patent 1,077,295, filed 1912 and issued 1913; James Powers, Sanitary drinking-cups, [U.S.] Patent 1,107,347, filed 1912 and issued 1914; James Powers, Manufacturing sanitary drinking-cups, [U.S.] Patent 1,107,348, filed and issued 1914; James Powers, Apparatus for conveying the speech of performers simultaneously and synchronously with the displaying of pictures, [U.S.] Patent 1,280,542, filed 1915 and issued 1918; James Powers, Transferring master drill device, [U.S.] Patent 1,310,034, filed 1917 and issued 1919; James Powers, Apparatus and method for formulating and translating codes, [U.S.] Patent 1,315,406, filed 1916 and issued 1919; James Powers, Auxiliary steering post, patent application 1916, never granted.

67. O’Keefe, “Chronological History,” in Ferry, “A History of the Sperry Rand.”

68. Diverse assignments in Liber Patent Transfer Volumes, 1836–1954, vol. A-117, 77–86 (1922); vol. H-117, 378 (1923); vol. S-131, 445–453 (1927); vol. E-136, 107–122 (1928), entry 1009, RG-241, NA; O’Keefe, “Chronological History;” “Vickers Limited. A Short Account of the Subsidiary Companies: Powers Samas” (1959), 11, Document 771, Vickers Archives, Cambrige University Library.

69. “James Henry Rand Dead at 81: A Co-founder of Sperry Rand, New York Times, 4 June 1968, 47:1; assignments from National Bank of New York to Powers Accounting Machine Company, Liber Patent Transfer Volumes, 1836–1954, vol. S-131, 445–453 (1927), vol. E-136, 107–122 (1928), entry 1009, RG-241, NA; assignments from Powers Accounting Machine Company and the National Bank of New York to Remington Rand (RR), Liber Patent Transfer Volumes, 1836–1954, vol. L-136, 504 (1928), vol. M-136, 261–162 (1928).

70. Executive Committee of Directors of RR, meeting 9 February 1942, vol. 3, 104, box 17, acc. 1910, Hagley; Ferry, “A History of the Sperry Rand.”

71. RR, Eleventh Annual Report (1938), vol. 6, box 15, acc. 1910, Hagley.

72. L. E. Brougham of Powers-Samas, “Confidential Report of a Visit to the United States March–April 1935,” box 1, ICL/Powers-Samas Papers, National Archives for the History of Computing, Manchester, England.

73. RR, Ninth Annual Report (1936), Tenth Annual Report (1937), vol. 6, box 15, acc. 1910, Hagley.

74. The agreement was confirmed in 1922 within the version of the agreement between IBM and RR, 4 March 1931, printed in “Petition, USA v. IBM, RR, etc,” 14 April 1932, 17–27, equity 66–215, District Court of the Southern District of New York, NA, Northeast Region, New York.

75. Herman Hollerith, Automatic control for tabulating machines, [U.S.] Patent 1,830,699, filed and issued 1931.

76. RR Directors Meeting, 3 March 1931, RR Minutes, box 15, vol. 3, 161, acc. 1910, Hagley; Executive Committee of Directors of Remington Rand, 31 March 1931, box 17, vol. 1, 231–233, acc. 1910, Hagley; Brougham, “Confidential Report.”

The RR information agrees with the 1931 agreement as reported in the in “Petition, USA v. IBM, RR”; see note 74 above.

77. William W. Lasker, Printing tabulator mechanism, [U.S.] Patent 1,668,916, filed 1924 and issued 1928; William W. Lasker, Type selector, [U.S.] Patent 1,705,983, filed 1925 and issued 1929.

78. O’Keefe, “Chronological History.”

79. Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1957 (Washington, DC: Bureau of the Census, 1960), 519–520, 527.

80. “Machine-Made Records,” Factory and Industrial Management 82 (1931): 492–493; L. F. Woodruff, “A System of Electric Remote-Accounting,” American Institute of Electrical Engineers Transactions 57 (1938): 78–87; “Chronological History of Punched Card Equipment,” and O’Keefe, “Chronological History.”

81. James Powers, Self starting automatic total taking mechanism, [U.S.] Patent 1,836,039, filed 1924 and issued 1931; Harold D. Penney and Joshua E. Davidson, Electrical non-stop card-tabulator printer, [U.S.] Patent 1,376,572, filed 1917 and issued 1921; Robert Edward Paris, Perforated card controlled machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,864,053, filed 1927 and issued 1932; O’Keefe, “Chronological History.”

82. William W. Lasker, Tabulating machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,780,621, filed 1929 and issued 1930; H. L. Tholstrup, Perforated storage media, Electrical Manufacturing, December 1958, 58.

83. “Model 2 Tabulator Controls,” Keeping Tabs 2:1A (1932); “Model Two Tabulator: A Few Tips on Direct Subtracting Features,” Keeping Tabs 2:2A (1932); “Powers Ninety Column Equipment,” Keeping Tabs 2:3A (1932); “Powers 90 Column Sorter,” Keeping Tabs 2:3C(1932); “Model 2 Tabulator: Y-Wire Grand Totals,” Keeping Tabs 2:5 (1932); all in box 14, acc. 1825, Hagley; “Introduction to UNIVAC Punched-Card Data Processing,” (Remmington Rand or Sperry-Rand, c. 1955), 25–27, box 347, accession 1825, Hagley; “Chronological History of Punched Card Equipment” and O’Keefe, “Chronological History of the Tabulating Machines Division,” in Ferry, “A History of the Sperry Rand.”

84. “Introduction to UNIVAC,” 27–28, box 347, accession 1825, Hagley.

85. “Introduction to UNIVAC,” 29.

86. “Introduction to UNIVAC,” 30–34.

87. “J. Royden Peirce IBM Engineer Dies Suddenly,” Business Machines, 12 January 1933, 1; e-mails from Nydia Cruz, S. C. Williams Library, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, to Lars Heide, 21 December 1998 and 26 January 1999.

88. James E. Brittain and Robert C. McMath Jr., “Engineers and the New South Creed: the Formation and Early Development of Georgia Tech,” in The Engineer in America, ed. Terry S. Reynolds (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 123–149, on 124; Terry S. Reynolds, “The Engineer in 19th-Century America,” in Engineer in America, 7–26, on 21.

89. For example, J. R. Peirce, Stone-working machine, [U.S.] Patent 819,080, filed 1904 and issued 1906; J. R. Peirce, Stoneworking-machine, [U.S.] Patent 862,933, filed 1904 and issued 1907; J. R. Peirce, Stone rubbing machine, [U.S.] Patent 798,587, filed and issued 1905; J. R. Peirce, Polishing-machine, [U.S.] Patent 817,798, filed 1905 and issued 1906.

90. John Royden Peirce, Bookkeeping machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,233,699, filed 1907 and issued 1917. This patent mentions two additional not-granted patent applications, filed 1906, which contained a detailed description of the system and were discarded by the Patent Office, as not-granted applications.

91. John Royden Peirce, Perforating machine, [U.S.] Patent 998,631, filed 1907 and issued 1911; John Royden Peirce, Bookkeeping machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,233,699, filed 1907 and issued 1917.

92. John Royden Peirce, Machine for check-making, &c, [U.S.] Patent 1,260,704, filed 1909 and issued 1918; John Royden Peirce, Recording mechanism, [U.S.] Patent 1,260,705, filed 1909 and issued 1918; John Royden Peirce, Listing-machine for pay-rolls and the like, [U.S.] Patent 1,260,706, filed 1909 and issued 1918; John Royden Peirce, Recording apparatus, [U.S.] Patent. No.1,110,643, filed 1908 and issued 1914; Freeman, “Automatic, Mechanical Punching,” 14–15; John Royden Peirce, Bookkeeping Machine, [U.S.] Patent. No. 1,219,766, filed 1909 and issued 1917; The Royden Automatic Accounting Machines, brochure marked 1912. During the years that followed, Peirce carried on this work and eventually made two extensive descriptions of his system, both with the title The Royden Systems of Perforated Cards, n.d. (probably 1915–1920). All three in box A-919-2, IBM Archives.

93. John Royden Peirce, Distributing machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,316,461, filed 1911 and issued 1919; John Royden Peirce, Sorting machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,219,767, filed 1911 and issued 1917; John Royden Peirce, Recording-machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,245,500, filed 1911 and issued 1917; John Royden Peirce, Perforating and printing machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,182,309, filed 1912 and issued 1916; John Royden Peirce, Machine for recording or listing items on cards, [U.S.] Patent 1,248,902, filed 1913 and issued 1917; Peirce called the punch a “perforating machine” and the tabulator a “distributing machine.”

94. John Royden Peirce, Perforated card for accounting systems, [U.S.] Patent 1,236,475, filed 1912 and issued 1917.

95. M.O. Chance, F. H. Tonsmeire, and E. H. Halding, “Report on the Royden System of Perforated Cards” to the United States President’s Commission on Economy and Efficiency, 9 March 1912; H. S. McCormack, “Report on Royden-Peirce Machine. Compiled for Mr. Gershom Smith by the Business Burse,” 13 May 1912, copies in box A-919-2, IBM Archives; Prospectus for the Royden Company to be established with 24 September 1912 cover letter from the company, box 10, folder 7, Hollerith Papers, LC.

96. Prospectus for the Royden Company to be established with 24 September 1912, covering letter from the company, box 10, folder 7, Hollerith Papers, LC.

97. Mutual Benefit ranked eighth in value of insurance in force in 1910, J. Owen Stalson, Marketing Life Insurance: Its History in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), 1942, 800.

98. Percy C. H. Papps, “The Installation of a Perforated Card System with a Description of the Peirce Machines,” Transactions of the Actuarial Society of America 15 (1914): 49–61.

99. “Description of the Peirce Listing and Adding Machine as Designated for Compilation of the Reports of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company,” prepared by the Peirce Patents Company, undated but accompanied with comments by Metropolitan actuary J. M. Craig, dated 7 May 1913, copy in box A-919-2, IBM Archives; Metropolitan Life Insurance Company: Its History, Its Present Position in the Insurance World, Its Home Office Building, and Its Work Carried on Therein (New York: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1914), 71–72.

100. Report by a Metropolitan assistant actuary, 1 May 1913, copy in box A-919–2, IBM Archives.

101. Series of letters between J. R. Peirce and J. M. Craig, Metropolitan Life actuary, 29 May 1913, through 23 June 1913; commentary by J. M. Craig on Papps, 1914; correspondence between Peirce and Metropolitan and Metropolitan commentaries, from 1 October 1915, to 5 October 1916; all in box A-919-2, IBM Archives.

102. JoAnne Yates, “Co-evolution of Information-Processing Technology and Use: Interaction between the Life Insurance and Tabulating Industries,” Business History Review 67 (1993), 1–51, on 36.

103. Peirce’s 150-column card was organized in six punched code strips, each consisting of twenty-five columns. Specimen cards attached to letter from F. T. Hines, U S. War Veterans Bureau to IBM, 17 February 1925, box A-919-2, IBM Archives. An earlier code was based on ten rows and is found in Royden System, see note 92.

104. Correspondence between Peirce and Metropolitan Life with internal Metropolitan Life comments, contract between Metropolitan Life and Peirce, 23 April 1918; copy annexed to memorandum of agreement, 13 July 1926, between IBM and Metropolitan Life; all three references copies in box A-919-2, IBM Archives; John Royden Peirce, Method and apparatus for perforating record sheets, [U.S.] Patent 1,506,381, filed 1922 and issued 1924; Yates, “Co-evolution of Information-Processing,” 38.

105. Memorandum of agreement, 17 June 1918, between the Peirce Accounting Machine Company, New York, and the Prudential Insurance Company of America, copy in box A-919-2, IBM Archives.

106. U.S. Veterans Bureau to IBM, 17 February 1925 and 15 April 1925, box: A-919-2, IBM Archives.

107. In 1921, the Veterans Bureau was established in a merger that included the Bureau of War Risk Insurance.

108. Agreement, 14 August 1920, between Thomas Jackson Felder, Archduke Frederick, and General Real Estate & Trust, Switzerland (copy); Cooper, Kerr & Dunham to IBM, 2 July 1924; both in box A-919-2, IBM Archives.

109. Assignment of Peirce Patents to Tabulating Machine Company (TMC), Liber Patent Transfer Volumes, 1836–1954, vol. B-116 (1921), 72, entry 1009, RG-241, National Archives; contract between Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR) and J. R. Peirce, 5 January 1933; unsigned agreement between J. R. Peirce and CTR, 14 March 1922; assignment of J. R. Peirce’s patents to CTR, 5 May 1922; all in box A-919-2, IBM Archives.

110. IBM to War Veterans Bureau, 17 February 1925, 26 March 1925, and War Veterans Bureau to IBM, 15 April 1925, 18 May 1925; memorandum of agreement, 13 July 1926, between IBM and J. R. Peirce; all in box A-919-2, IBM Archives.

111. W. J. Banett, “A Study of the Peirce Machines,” Metropolitan Life Report, 1 March 1929, copy in box A-919-2, IBM Archives.

112. John Royden Peirce, Method and apparatus for perforating record sheets, [U.S.] Patent 1,506,381, filed 1922 and issued 1924; John Royden Peirce, Perforation reading instrumentalities, [U.S.] Patent 1,506,383, filed 1922 and issued 1924.

113. Alfred D. Chandler, Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990), 34–36.

114. Herman Hollerith, Apparatus for compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 395,783, filed and issued 1889; Herman Hollerith, Art of compiling statistics, [U.S.] Patent 395,782, filed and issued 1889.

115. Herman Hollerith, Apparatus for perforating record cards, [U.S.] Patent 682,197, filed and issued 1901; Herman Hollerith, Tabulating apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 685,608, filed and issued 1901.

116. National Archives, RG 241, entry 9A, Patent Case File 1,830,699; Herman Hollerith, Automatic group control for tabulating machines, [U.S.] Patent 1,830,699, filed 1914 and issued 1931; James Powers, Automatic total-taking mechanism of accounting-machines, [U.S.] Patent 1,245,506, filed 1915 and issued 1917; “Consolidated Patent Act of 1870,” U.S. Congress, Statutes at Large, vol. 16 (1869–1871), 1198, sections 22, 23.

Chapter Four: The Rise of International Business Machines

1. Saul Engelbourg, International Business Machines: A Business History (completed as his Ph.D. diss. 1954; New York: Arno Press, 1976), 60–62; Alfred D. Chandler, Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990), 76, 81.

2. Geoffrey Austrian, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982), 306–307.

3. Engelbourg, International Business Machines, 27–30, 32–52; Emerson W. Pugh, Building IBM: Shaping and Industry and Its Technology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995), 25–26.

4. Charles R. Flint, Memories of an Active Life: Men and Ships, and Sealing Wax, ed., Irvin S. Cobb (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1923), 312.

5. Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR), Executive Committee Meetings, 11 September 1911, 1 February 1912, CTR Minutes, International Business Machines (IBM) Archives.

6. James W. Bruce, Fred M. Carroll, and Clair D. Lake provide examples of inventors working across the four companies that constituted CTR. The Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office: Register, 1912–1929.

7. CTR, Executive Committee Meeting, 13 December 1918.

8. Pugh, Building IBM, 28.

9. CTR, Executive Committee Meeting, 1 February 1912.

10. CTR Board Meetings, 24 October 1911, 11 January 1913.

11. Copy of agreement between H. Hollerith and CTR, 15 July 1911, box 10, folder 6, Hollerith Papers, Library of Congress (LC).

12. CTR Board Meeting, 24 October 1911; CTR, Executive Committee Meeting, 9 November 1911.

13. M. O. Chance, F. H. Tonsmeire, and E. H. Halding, “Report on the Royden System of Perforated Cards to the United States President’s Commission on Economy and Efficiency,” 9 March 1912; H. S. McCormack, “Report on Royden-Peirce Machine. Compiled for Mr. Gershom Smith by the Business Burse,” 13 May 1912, box A-919-2, IBM Archives; Prospectus for the Royden Company to be established with 24 September 1912, covering letter from the company, box 10, folder 7, Hollerith Papers, LC.

14. F. N. Kondolf to H. Hollerith, 16 February 1914, box 10, folder 8, Hollerith Papers, LC; Herman Hollerith, Card testing device, [U.S.] Patent 1,132,345, filed 1914 and issued 1915.

15. Drawing attached to letter, H. Hollerith to S. G. Metcalf, 23 May 1899, box A-832-1, folder: Corresp./1899, IBM Archives; Herman Hollerith, Registering apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 1,030,304, filed 1904 and issued 1912; Herman Hollerith, Apparatus for use in tabulating systems,” [U.S.] Patent 1,109,841, filed 1913 and issued 1914; CTR Board Meeting, 28 October 1913.

16. Herman Hollerith, Registering and recording apparatus for tabulating systems, [U.S.] Patent 1,295,167, filed 1913 and issued 1919.

17. J. M. Hiznay, “Interview with C. D. Lake,” 1954, box A-25-3, folder: History, IBM Archives.

18. Chance et al., “Report on the Royden System”; McCormack, “Report on Royden-Peirce Machine”; CTR to H. Hollerith, 8 November 1912, with two enclosures, box 10, folder 7, Hollerith Papers, LC. The McCormack report reverses JoAnne Yates’ assertion that Peirce caught Hollerith’s attention as early as 1912, whereas the Tabulating Machine Company (TMC) management only reacted in 1914. JoAnn Yates, “Co-evolution of Information-Processing Technology and Use: Interaction between the Life Insurance and Tabulating Industries,” Business History Review, 67 (1993), 1–51, on 24, 29.

19. Herman Hollerith, Tabulating machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,087,061, filled 1912 and issued 1914; James Powers, Tabulator printer for statistical purposes, [U.S.] Patent 1,245,502, filed 1913 and issued 1917. As early as 1906 Hollerith worked on controlling tabulating operations by punched cards (Herman Hollerith, Tabulating apparatus,” [U.S.] Patent 998,095, filed 1906 and issued 1914).

20. Patent Case File 1,830,699, entry 9A, RG-241, National Archives (NA); Herman Hollerith, Automatic group control for tabulating machines, [U.S.] Patent 1,830,699, filed 1914 and issued 1931; “Consolidated Patent Act of 1870,” U.S. Congress, Statutes at Large, vol. 16 (1869–1871), 198, sections 22, 23.

21. Herman Hollerith, Apparatus for perforating record-cards, [U.S.] Patent 1,110,261, filed and issued 1914; Historical Record of Card and Machine Development, IBM 1955, 4, IBM Archives.

22. CTR Executive Committee Meeting, 15 June 1914.

23. CTR Executive Committee Meetings, 23 December 1913, 30 December 1913, and 2 January 1914.

24. CTR, Executive Committee Meeting, 2 January 1914.

25. Engelbourg, International Business Machines, 77–78.

26. CTR, Board Meeting, 19 May 1914.

27. Engelbourg, International Business Machines, 67.

28. CTR, Board Meetings, 20 April 1914, 19 May 1914, and 15 March 1915.

29. Engelbourg, International Business Machines, 81–84; Thomas Belden and Marva Belden, The Lengthening Shadow: The Life of Thomas J. Watson (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1962), 3–58; Thomas J. Watson Jr. and Peter Petre, Father, Son & Co.: My Life at IBM and Beyond (New York: Bantam Books, 1990), 8–12.

30. Samuel Crowther, John H. Patterson, Pioneer in Industrial Welfare (New York: Doubleday, Page & Co, 1924), 73–74.

31. Belden and Belden, The Lengthening Shadow, 133–134; Gunnar Nerheim and Helge W. Nordvik, ‘Ikke bare maskiner’: Historien om IBM i Norge 1935–1985 (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1986), 20–21.

32. Belden and Belden, The Lengthening Shadow, 135–137; Engelbourg, International Business Machines, 188–191; Gerald Bordman, American Musical Theatre: A Chronicle (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 441–442.

33. George F. Daly, Minute of Discussion with Connolly, 12 October 1953, box TAR-119, IBM Archives.

34. Copy of letter, G. Smith, TMC, to T. J. Watson, CTR, 26 June 1914, box 10, folder 8, Hollerith Papers, LC.

35. CTR, Board Meeting, 25 August 1914; Pugh, Building IBM, 39–40.

36. Letter with enclosures, F. N. Kondolf to H. Hollerith, 16 February 1914; E. A. Ford to H. Hollerith, 10 March 1914; E. A. Ford to H. Hollerith, 17 March 1914; E. A. Ford to H. Hollerith, 30 March 1914; letter with enclosure, F. N. Kondolf to H. Hollerith, 7 April 1914; all box 10, folder 8, Hollerith Papers. E. A. Ford to H. Hollerith, 15 June 1915, box 11, folder 2, Hollerith Papers, LC; O. Braimaier to E. A. Ford, 17 March 1916; T. J. Watson to H. Hollerith, 19 December 1916; copy of letter, E. A. Ford to T. J. Watson, 9 December 1916; all in box 11, folder 3, Hollerith Papers, LC. H. Hollerith to C. D. Lake, 1 May 1917; box 11, folder 4, Hollerith Papers, LC; H. Hollerith to C. D. Lake, 27 November 1917; H. Hollerith to C. D. Lake, 30 November 1917; all in box 11, folder 5; C. D. Lake to H. Hollerith, 5 April 1916, 1 May 1916, 18 June 1916, 27 April 1917, box 21, folder 2, Hollerith Papers, LC.

37. CTR Board Meeting, 23 May 1916; Fred M. Carroll, Computing and printing machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,091,482, filed 1906 and issued 1914, assigned to the White Adding Machine Company, New Haven, CT; Fred M. Carroll, Printing mechanism for cash-registers, [U.S.] Patent 1,245,191, filed 1915 and 1917, assigned to the National Cash Register Company.

38. Pugh, Building IBM, 40–42, 45–47.

39. J. M. Hiznay, “Interview with C. D. Lake, 1954,” A-25-3, folder history, IBM Archives; “Daly’s Poughkeepsie Talk, June 1, 1955,” 16, box TAR 119, IBM Archives.

40. Clair D. Lake, Improvement in automatically-controlled tabulating machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,570,264, filed 1921 and issued 1926; Alvin E. Gray, IBM Development Manual, Book I: Numerical Tabulators, typescript 1956, 39–41, box A-25-2, folder: History/Num.tab., IBM Archives.

41. Clair D. Lake, Printing tabulator, [U.S.] Patent 1,379,268, filed 1919 and issued 1921; Gray, IBM Development Manual, 41–56; John Hayward, “Historical Development of IBM Products and Patents,” typescript 1957, 9; box A-25-2, folder: History/Num.tab, IBM Archives.

42. Gray, IBM Development Manual, 41, in IBM Archives, box A-25-2 (Endicott Engineering), folder: History/Num.tab; Fred M. Carroll, Listing machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,516,079, filed 1922 and issued 1924 (later machine version with the rotary drum printer).

43. Charles J. Bashe, Lyle R. Johnson, John H. Palmer, and Emerson W. Pugh, IBM’s Early Computers (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986), 8–9.

44. C. N. Dutton to F. N. Kondolf, CTR, 1 April 1914; F. N. Kondolf, CTR, to C. N. Dutton, 1 April 1914; both in LC, Hollerith Papers, box 10, Hollerith Papers; CTR Executive Council Meeting, 26 May 1914; CTR Board Meetings, 6 June 1914, 25 July 1916, Executive and Finance Committee Meeting, 7 September 1920; Hayward, Historical Development, 101–102.

45. Patent Case File 1,830,699, entry 9A, RG-241, NA; James Powers, Automatic total taking mechanism, [U.S.] Patent 1,245,506, filed 1915 and issued 1917; Charles A. Tripp, Stop card inserting machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,208,051, filed and issued 1916; John Royden Peirce, Distributing machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,316,461, filed 1911 and issued 1919; Herman Hollerith, Automatic group control for tabulating machines, [U.S.] Patent 1,830,699, filed 1914 and issued 1931; Felix Thomas, “Interference Litigation between Hollerith, Peirce, Tripp, and Powers, 1917 to 1924,” 68–77, in “Historical Development of IBM Products and Patents; Accounting Machine Development,” ed. John Hayward, IBM typescript, 1948, 1, box A-1091-1, IBM Archives.

46. “Daly’s Poughkeepsie Talk,” 14

47. CTR Board Meeting, 28 October 1913; Herman Hollerith, Apparatus for perforating record-cards, [U.S.] Patent 1,110,261, filed and issued 1914; Historical Record of Card and Machine Development, 4; G. F. Daly, “Historical Data—Electric Key Punch Development,” 27 June 1962, box A-25-1, folder: History/calculators, IBM Archives.

48. CTR Executive Committee Meeting, 10 May 1914; Stephen B. Tily, John G. Rehfuss and Martin O. Rehfuss, Card punching machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,061,883, filed 1911 and issued 1914; Hayward, Historical Development, 101.

49. Contract between J. T. Schaaff and TMC, 17 January 1918, in Smithsonian, object no. 191.3180.04; “The Detailed Explanation of Exclusive Licenses: Schaaff” (1953), “Further Notes on Discussion with Thomas Re. Early History” (1953), and “Daly’s Discussion with Connolly October 12, 1953,” in IBM, box TAR-119 (Daly) IBM Archives; G. F. Daly, “Historical Data.”

50. Historical Record of Card and Machine Development, 5, 9.

51. Historical Record of Card and Machine Development, 4; Bashe, Johnson, Palmer, and Pugh, IBM’s Early Computers, 7–8.

52. Historical Record of Card and Machine Development, 5.

53. Belden and Belden, The Lengthening Shadow, 1962, 96.

54. Executive and Finance Committee Meeting, 21 July 1914; Executive Committee Meeting, 15 December 1914; in IBM, CTR minutes. The agreement was for fifteen years.

55. Belden and Belden, The Lengthening Shadow, 1962, 95–97.

56. Martin Campbell-Kelly, ICL: A Business and Technical History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), 35, parallels the German and U.S. licenses but has no reference to the German rate.

57. Belden and Belden, The Lengthening Shadow, 97; Watson and Petre, Father, Son & Co., 141–142, 215–217.

58. CTR Executive Committee Meetings, 28 January 1919, 21 June 1922, 7 June 1922, 26 September 1922; Executive and Finance Committee Meetings, 26 October 1920, 8 June 1926, 8 September 1926.

59. “Petition,” filed 26 August 1935, in Remington Rand v. IBM at Supreme Court of New York, Equity 66-215, District Court of the Southern District of New York, NA, Northeast Region, New York.

60. Chandler, Scale and Scope.

61. “Memo for Mr. Watson,” 9 June 1922; copy of letter, F. G. Idler, Prudential Insurance Company, to CTR, 5 February 1924; J. R. Peirce, CTR, to F. G. Idler, Prudential Insurance Company; all in box A-163-3, IBM Archives.

62. CTR Executive Committee Meeting, 5 January 1922.

63. John Royden Peirce, Record sheet and apparatus controlled thereby, [U.S.] Patent 1,506,382, filed 1922 and issued 1924 (probably this is the Veterans Bureau machine); H. J. Ekelund, J. A. Ruth, and F. Thomas, “Memorandum dated October 29, 1952, on Alphabetical Accounting Machines,” in Hayward, “Historical Development,” 52–53.

64. Ekelund, Ruth, and Thomas, “Memorandum on Alphabetical Accounting Machine,” 52–53; John Royden Peirce, [U.S.] Patent 1,506,382 (see n 63 above); John Royden Peirce, Perforated card controlled machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,750,191, filed 1927 and issued 1930; John Royden Peirce, Perforated record-controlled accounting machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,946,915, filed 1929 and issued 1934; “Engineering Report July-August 1927,” 2.5, box A-163-3, IBM Archives.

65. Fred M. Carroll, Card-controlled printing machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,623,163, filed 1922 and issued 1927; George F. Daly and Ralph E. Page, Tabulating machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,762,145, filed 1925 and issued 1930; Pugh, Building IBM, 47–48.

66. C. D. Lake, Record sheet for tabulating machines, [U.S.] Patent 1,772,492, filed 1928 and issued 1930.

67. Felix Thomas, “Historical Review,” in Hayward, “Historical Development,” 26–27; Gray, IBM Development Manual, 59–62.

68. Letter printed by use of this tabulator, C. D. Lake to T. J. Watson Sr., 4 October 1928, box A-163-3, IBM Archives.

69. Sherwin K. Decker and Gordon Roberts, Accounting means, [U.S.] Patent 1,916,969, filed 1929 and issued 1933; Sherwin Decker and Gordon Roberts, Accounting means, [U.S.] Patent 1,930,253, filed 1929 and issued 1933; Einar Lawrence Kirkegaard, Tabulator, [U.S.] Patent 2,059,797, filed 1930 and issued 1936; Gray, IBM Development Manual, 38–39, 65–67; memorandum with enclosures by G. F. Daly, 20 December 1961, box A-25-1, folder: History/Calculators, IBM Archives.

70. Boris Emmet and John E. Jeuck, Catalogues and Counters: A History of Sears, Roebuck and Company (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950), 319–320.

71. “Daly’s Poughkeepsie Talk,” 24–25.

72. Darmstätter und Nationalbank, Auswechselungseinrichtung für die Typenträger an schribenden Lochkarten-Machinen, [German] Patent 452,233, filed and issued 1927; Wilhelm August Hoffmann, Type holding appliance, [U.S.] Patent 1,853,211, filed 1927 and issued 1930.

73. Regarding the later model, IBM Type 375: George F. Daly, Tabulating machine, [U.S.] Patent 2,107,143, filed 1930 and issued 1938; George F. Daly and Jonas E. Dayger, Billing machine, [U.S.] Patent 1,954,041, filed 1931 and issued 1934; Ekelund, Ruth, and Thomas, “Memorandum on Alphabetical Accounting Machines,” in Historical Development, 53–54.

74. Pugh, Building IBM, 50, dates RR’s announcement to 1930. The correct year was 1929.

75. Ekelund, Ruth, and Thomas, “Memorandum on Alphabetical Accounting Machines,” 54–55.

76. Ekelund, Ruth, and Thomas, “Memorandum on Alphabetical Accounting Machines,” 55–62.

77. Lars Heide, Hulkort- og edb i Danmark, 1911–1970 (Århus, Denmark: Systime 1996), 40.

78. Ekelund, Ruth, and Thomas, “Memorandum on Alphabetical Accounting Machines,” 59–60.

79. J. W. Bryce, Multiplying machine, [U.S.] Patent 2,178,950, filed 1928 and issued 1939; J. W. Bryce, Calculating machine, [U.S.] Patent 2,271,248, filed 1928 and issued 1942; J. W. Bryce, Multiplying machine, [U.S.] Patent 2,178,951, filed 1931 and issued 1939; Hayward, “Historical Development,” 116, 121; Bashe, Johnson, Palmer, and Pugh, IBM’s Early Computers 1986, 14–15.

80. Gustav Tauschek, Maschine zur rechnerischen Auswertung von Lochkarten, [German] Patent 459,168, filed 1926 and issued 1928.

81. Hartmut Petzold, Rechnende Machinen. Eine historische Untersuchung ihrer Herstellung und Anwendung vom Keiserreich bis zur Bundesrepublik (Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag, 1985), 221–222.

82. IBM Executive and Finance Committee Meeting, 30 September 1930; Hayward, “Historical Development,” 104–106, 116–122.

83. “Endicott Laboratory: Research and Invention Budget for 1935,” summary, box A-163-1, IBM Archives; Gustav Tauschek, Printing mechanism, [U.S.] Patent 2,010,652, filed 1933 and issued 1935; Gustav Tauschek, Machine for simulating hand-writing, [U.S.] Patent 2,049,675, filed 1935 and issued 1936; Gustav Tauschek, Printing mechanism for tabulating machines, [U.S.] Patent 2,066,748, filed 1935 and issued 1937; Gustav Tauschek, Sound recording and reproducing machine, [U.S.] Patent 2,089,309, filed 1933 and issued 1937; Gustav Tauschek, Tabulating machine, [U.S.] Patent 2,093,529, filed 1932 and issued 1937; Gustav Tauschek, Tabulating machine, [U.S.] Patent 2,113,634, filed 1935 and issued 1938; Gustav Tauschek, Luminous sign, [U.S.] Patent 2,20,378, filed 1934 and issued 1938; Gustav Tauschek, Tabulating machine, [U.S.] Patent 2,182,006, filed and issued 1934.

84. Gustav Tauschek, Record filing and selecting apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 2,013,012, filed 1932 and issued 1935; Gustav Tauschek, Reading machine, [U.S.] Patent 2,115,563, filed 1932 and issued 1938.

85. H. S. McCormack, “Keeping Books by Machine: The Punched Card as a Saver of Brain Energy,” Scientific American, 108 (1913): 194–195, on 195.

86. Thomas P. Hughes, American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm (New York: Penguin, 1989), 53–55.

Chapter Five: Decline of Punched Cards for European Census Processing

1. H. Hollerith to Census Office, 10 March 1889, printed copy, box 34, folder 7, Hollerith Papers, Library of Congress (LC).

2. Geoffrey Austrian, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982), 47.

3. Herman Hollerith, Apparat zur Ermittlung statistischer Ergebnisse und zum Sortieren von Zählkarten, [Austrian] Patent 39/2707, filed and issued 1889, K. K. Privelege Archiv, Vienna; Herman Hollerith, Improvements in the method and apparatus for compiling statistics, [British] Patent, 1889:376, filed and issued 1889); Herman Hollerith, Procédé et appareil permettant d’obtenir des résultats statistiques de toute nature, et de classer les cartes de comptage d’une manière exacte, [French] Patent 195,265, filed and issued 1889, Archives d’Institut national de la propriété industrielle, Paris; Herman Hollerith, Verfahren und Apparat zur Ermittlung statistischer Ergebnisse und zur Sortierung von Zählkarten, [German] Patent 49,593, filed and issued 1889.

4. Herman Hollerith, Hilfsventiel für Luftdruck- und Vakuumbremsen, [German] Patent 45,524, filed 1887 and issued 1888; Herman Hollerith, Elektrisch betriebenes Ventil für Luftdruck- und Vakuumbremsen, [German] Patent 45,525, filed 1887 and issued 1888.

5. “Privilegiengesetz,” 15 August 1852, [Austrian] Reich Gesetz Blatt 184 (1852), section 3; “Loi sur les brevets d’invention,” Le Moniteur Belge 25(145; 25 May 1854), 1622, Article 25; the French “Loi du 5 juillet 1844 sur les brevets d’invention,” clause 32; the French “Loi du 20 mai 1856 modifiant l’art. 32 de la loi du 5 juillet 1844 sur les brevets d’invention.”

6. Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 48–49.

7. Adolf Adam, Vom himmlischen Uhrwerk zur statistischen Fabrik. 600 Jahre Entdeckungsreise in das Neuland Österreicher Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (Vienna: Verlag Herbert O. Munk, 1973); Heinz Zemanek, “Otto Schäffler. Ein vergessener Österreicher. Die Biographie eines genialen Unternehmers und Erfinders,” Österreichischer Gewerbeverein. Jahrbuch, 92 (1974), 71–92.

8. Zemanek, “Otto Schäffler,” 88, wrongly asserts that Schäffler’s approach caused Hollerith to file an Austrian patent application. The application was filed on 8 January 1889, Herman Hollerith, Apparat zur Ermittlung statistischer Ergebnisse und zum Sortieren von Zählkarten, [Austrian] Patent 39/2707, filed and issued 1889, K. K. Privelege Archiv.

9. “Privilegiengesetz,” 15 August 1852, [Austrian] Reich Gesetz Blatt 184 (1852), sec. 3.

10. The Austrian census was processed starting October 1891. Heinrich Rauchberg, “Die elektrische Zählmaschine und ihre Anwendung insbesondere bei der Österreicher Volkszählung,” Allgemeines Statistische Archiv, 2 (1892): 78–126, on 79; Heinrich Rauchberg, “Erfahrungen mit den elektrischen Zählmaschinen,” Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv, 4 (1896): 131–163; V. Klepacki, “Die Hollerith’sche elektrische Zählmaschine für Volkszählungen,” Polytechnische Zentralblatt, Berlin, 57:11 (1896): 121–125, on 121.

11. Otto Schäffler, Neuerungen an statistischen Zählmachinen, [Austrian] Patent 46/3182, filed and issued 1895, K. K. Privelege Archiv.

12. Schäffler was never granted a patent in the United States for plugboard programming.

13. Anders Nicolai Kiær (Norway), Nicolas Troïnitsky (Russia), Victor Turquan (France) participated according to Bulletin de l’Institut International d’Statistique, 6 (1892): xxx; Frédéric Probst, “Description de la machine électrique servant au dépouillement du recensement autrichien de 1890,” Bulletin, 19–25.

14. A. N. Kiær’s report dated 30 October 1893, on his voyage to the United States, “Kopiboka til Statsitisk Sentralbyrå for 1893,” 1426–1436, on 1432, Statistisk Sentralbyrås arkiv, Riksarkivet, Oslo; Signy Arctander, “Den offisielle statistikks historie,” Arbeidsnotater. Statistisk Sentralbyrå, No. IB 70/1 (1970), 61–62, 73–74, 75–77.

15. Stortingstidende, Stortinget, 44. samling, 1895, Kongeriget Norges ordinære stortingsforhandlinger, 965–966.

16. A. N. Kiær, “En reform i den norske handelsstatistik. Elektricitet anvendt i statistikkens tjeneste,” Statsøkonomisk tidsskrift, 1910, 234–243.

17. Austrian, Herman Hollerith, 115–163; Henning Bauer, Andreas Kappeler, and Brigitte Roth, ed., Die Nationalitäten des Russischen Reiches in der Volkszählung von 1897 (Stuttgart, Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1991), vol. A, 9, 54–87.

18. Klepacki, “Die Hollerith’sche elektrische Zählmaschine,” 221.

19. Statistique générale de la France. Histoire et travaux de la fin du XVIIe siècle au début du XXe (Paris: Imprimerie National, 1913), 17.

20. Robert Ligonnière, Préhistoire et histoire des ordinateur, Des origines du calcul aux premiers calculateurs électronique (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1987), 143–144, Béatrice Touchelay, L’I.N.S.E.E. Des origines à 1961: Évolution et relation avec la réalité économique, politique et sociale (Thèse de Doctorat en Histoire Économique présentée à la Faculté de Lettre de Paris XII, Paris, 1993), 20–28. No part of the Statistique générale de la France archive from this period has survived.

21. Lucien March, “Les procédés du recensement des industries et professions en 1896,” Société des Ingénieurs civils de France. Bulletin, 1899, 396–424; Lucien March, Système de dépouillement de renseignements collectifs, sans transcription préalable, sur des cartes perforées, dit classicompteur, [French] Patent 288,628, filed and issued 1899, 1; both in Archives d’INPI, Paris.

22. Die Volkszählung am 1. Dezember 1890 im Deutschen Reich, Statistik des Deutschen Reichs, new series, 68 (1894), 7*.

23. Georg von Mayr, “Die Einrichtung der Bevölkerungsaufnahme vom 1. Dezember 1890 in den größeren deutschen Staaten,” Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv, 2 (1892): 349–368; Georg von Mayr, “Die für die deutsche Volkszählung von 1. Dezember 1890 und deren reichsstatistische Ausbeutung getroffenen Bestimmungen,” Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv, 1 (1890): 371–398.

24. Klepacki, “Die Hollerith’sche elektrische Zählmachine for Volkszählungen,” 124–125.

25. Separate censuses were conducted in Ireland and Scotland.

26. A separate census institution was established in 1920. Guide to Census Reports. Great Britain 1901–1966 (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office [HMSO], 1977), 1–4, 11–23.

27. Martin Campbell-Kelly, “Information Technology and Organizational Change in the British Census, 1801–1911,” Information Systems Research 7 (1996): 22–36.

28. 1890 figure. Separate censuses for Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Hungary.

Chapter Six: Punched Cards for General Statistics in Europe

1. Cecilia Pahlberg, Subsidiary: Headquarters Relationships in International Business Networks (doctoral thesis, Uppsala University, 1996).

2. “Robert Percival Porter (1852–1917),” Dictionary of American Bibliography; “Death of Mr. R.P. Porter,” The Times, 1 March 1917, 10:4; New York Times, 1 March 1917, 13:5; New York Times, 2 March 1917, 10:4.

3. Martin Campbell-Kelly, ICL: A Business and Technical History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), 13–14.

4. Geoffrey Austrian, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982), 212–213; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 16–18.

5. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 19–20, 27–28. The 1908 contract is published on 387–391. On 26, Campbell-Kelly wrongly asserts a 25% royalty of total revenues. There was no royalty charged on sale of punches or punched cards.

6. B.T.M. Co.: Rentals and Accounts 1916–1919, National Archives for the History of Computing (NAHC), Manchester, England; figures from 1908 and 1914 in Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 24, 27.

7. Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR) Board Meeting, 25 July 1912, CTR Board Minutes, International Business Machine (IBM) Archives, New York; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 33–34, 37–38.

8. C. A. E. Greene, The Beginnings, 1958, 1–7, ICC/A1k, NAHC; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 17–18.

9. Greene, The Beginnings, 9, 11–14, 21–22; “The Hollerith Tabulating System,” The Engineer, 1934, 274; The British Tabulating Machine Company Limited, 1907–1957, 3, typescript, NAHC.

10. Greene, The Beginnings, 8–11, 17; “The British Tabulating Machine Company Limited, 1907–1957,” 3, typescript, NAHC; “B.T.M. Co.: Rentals and Accounts 1916–1919,” NAHC.

11. “B.T.M. Co.: Rentals and Accounts”; Greene, The Beginnings, 11–13.

12. Registrar General, “Memorandum re. Census of 1901,” no date, Census returns: Correspondence and papers, 1908, RG 19/45, Public Record Office (PRO), London.

13. “The Tabulator,” The Engineer, 1911, 96–97, 146–148, 196–197, 279–280; G. H. Baillie, Adding &c. machines, [British] Patent 29,686, filed and issued 1910; C. A. E. Greene, Tabulating systems, [British] Patent 10,681, filed and issued 1910; H. J. Norballe, Counting-machines, [British] Patent 10,918, filed and issued 1910; British Tabulating Machine Co., Sorting statistics &c., [British] Patent 28,544, filed and issued 1913; Report, 15 November 1910, on purchase of tabulating machines on behalf of Census Office, by R. Bailey, and supplemental report from 29 November 1910, STAT 12/10/9, Public Record Office; Treasury Chambers to Controller, HMSO, 7 January 1911, STAT 12/35/20, PRO, London; Guide to Census Reports: Great Britain 1801–1966 (London: HMSO, 1977), 24.

14. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 30, 38. I applied in vain for access to the minutes of the board meetings and other board documents from the British Tabulating Machine Company and the British Powers Company, now both in custody of International Computers Limited (ICL). Martin Campbell-Kelly had access to these papers when he wrote his book, and he kindly offered his photocopies for my work.

15. “Report on the ‘Powers’ Accounting and Tabulating Machines,” June 1915, and Controller, HMSO, to Treasury, 25 June 1915, T-1/11800, PRO.

16. “Powers-Samas Accounting Machines Com Ltd. in Vickers Limited. A Short Account of the Subsidiary Companies,” Document No. 771, Vickers Archives, Cambridge University Library. British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) figures from “B.T.M. Co. Rentals and Accounts.”

17. Herman Hollerith, Improvements in tabulating machines, [British] Patent Specification 117,985, filed and issued 1918; James Powers, Improvement in automatic total taking means for recording tabulating machines, [British] Patent Specification 104,703, filed 1916 and issued 1917; Herman Hollerith, Automatic group control for tabulating machines, [U.S.] Patent 1,830,699, filed 1914 and issued 1931.

18. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 89–90. Unlike the present author, Campbell-Kelly had access to the board minutes and papers of the two British punched card companies.

19. Herman Hollerith, Automatic group control for tabulating machines, [U.S.] Patent 1,830,699, filed 1914 and issued 1931.

20. Herman Hollerith, Improvements in tabulating machines, [British] Patent 117,985, filed and issued 1918.

21. The [UK] Patents and Designs Act, 1907, 7 Edward 7, c. 29, sec. 13, 17.

22. The [UK] Patents and Designs Act, 1907, 7 Edward 7, c. 29, sec. 27. The [UK] Patents and Designs (Convention) Act, 1928, 18 & 19 George 5, c. 80, sec. 2, reduced the time limit to three years.

23. Herman Hollerith, Tabulating apparatus, [U.S.] Patent 685,608, filed and issued 1901. See the [UK] Patents Act, 1902, 2 Edward 7, c. 34, sec. 3.5.

24. The [UK] Patents and Designs Act, 1907, 7 Edward 7, c. 29, sec. 7.

25. Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire during the Great War, 1914–1918 (London: HMSO, 1922), 30–32.

26. Martin Campbell-Kelly, “Large Scale Data Processing in Prudential, 1850–1930” [in England], Accounting, Business and Financial History 2 (1992): 117–139; Martin Campbell-Kelly, “The Railway Clearing House and Victorian Data Processing,” in Information Acumen: The Understanding and Use of Knowledge in Modern Business, ed., Lisa Bud-Frierman (London: Routledge: 1994), 51–74; Martin Campbell-Kelly, “Data Processing and Technological Change: The Post Office Savings Bank, 1861–1930,” Technology and Culture 39 (1998): 1–32.

27. See, for example, various reports and correspondences 1912–1914, STAT 12/14/1 and STAT 12/16/3, PRO.

28. Controller, HMSO, to Treasury, 25 June 1915, T 1/11800, PRO.

29. History of the Ministry of Munitions, 12 vols., London, 1921–1922, vol. 1, part 2, 57–80.

30. “B.T.M. Co.: Rentals and Accounts”; History of the Ministry of Munitions, vol. 9, part 1, 22–25, 55.

31. “B.T.M. Co.: Rentals and Accounts.”

32. Company size according to assets in 1913, Alfred D. Chandler, Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990), 698.

33. W. Heidinger to Zwangsverwalter, 13 June 1918, 1–2, Anlage No. 3 to “Zwangsverwaltung der feindlichen Beteiligung an der Deutschen Hollerith GmbH in Berlin, 1918–1932,” file I.HA/Rep. 120 C VIII 1 Nr.84 adhib. 18 Beiheft 2104, Geheimes Staatsarchiv, Berlin (GS); H. Goerlitz, Zur Geschichte der Powers-Maschine, 1934, History Archive of IBM Deutschland; Hartmut Petzold, Rechnende Maschinen. Eine historische Untersuchung ihrer Herstellung und Anwendung vom Kaiserreich bis zur Bundesrepublik (Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag, 1985), 197–198.

34. Agreement of 22 November 1910, between the Tabulating Machine Company (TMC) and Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft (Dehomag), mbH, B95/95, Wirtschaftsarchiv Baden-Württemberg; “An die Gesellschafter der Deutschen Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft m.b.H.,” 7 April 1913, B95/89, Wirtschaftsarchiv Baden-Württemberg.

35. CTR, Board Meeting, 25 June 1911; CTR, Executive Committee Meetings, 9 September 1913, 14 and 21 October 1913, 30 January 1914; agreement between TMC and Deutsche Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft m.b.H. (Dehomag), 24 November 1919, B95/95, Wirtschaftsarchiv Baden-Württemberg.

36. Processing census returns was a responsibility of the states.

37. Festschrift zur 25–Jahresfeier der Deutschen Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft (Berlin: Dehomag, 1935), 69.

38. Alfred D. Chandler, Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990), 476–477.

39. Dehomag to Der Treuhänder für das feindliche Vermögen, 18 March 1918; Dr. Lucas, “Mechanisches Abrechnungsverfahren in der Fabrikbuchhaltung,” manuscript, 24 July 1918; both in I.HA/Rep. 120 C VIII 1 No. 84 adhib. 18 Beiheft 2104, GS; Hollerith Mitteilungen 1 (May 1912), 21–22, 2 (December 1912), 84–86, 4, 1–6, 16–31; letter, “An die Gesellschafter der Deutschen Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft m.b.H.,” 7 April 1913, B95/89, Wirtschaftsarchiv Baden-Württemberg.

40. Hollerith Mitteilungen, 1 (1912); R. N. Williams, “Die Hollerithsche Sortier- und Addiermaschine und ihre Verwendung im Eisenbahndienste,” Zeitung des Vereins deutscher Eisenbahnverwaltungen 52 (1912), 195–199, 211–214.

41. Hollerith Mitteilungen, 2 (1912).

42. Pavel, “Zur Feststellung des Gütersolls durch Verkehrskontrollen,” Zeitung des Vereins deutscher Eisenbahn Verwaltungen, 1912, 470; Otto Müller, “Das Lochkartenverfahren und seine Verwendung im Eisenbahndienst,” Zeitschrift für Verkehrswissenschaft, 3 (1925): 222–223; Festschrift, 68–70.

43. Hollerith Mitteilungen 4 (1914), 3–6.

44. R. Lorant, “Maschinelle Kontokorrentbuchhaltung bei Großbanken,” Organisation (Berlin) 9 (1925), 403–410; Max Zander, “Die Lochkarte im Bankbetrieb,” Die Lochkarte und das Powers-System 10 (1932), 69–76.

45. Danish examples were the Danish Statistics (Statistisk Departement) and the Danish State Railways (Statsbanerne), Lars Heide, Hulkort- og edb i Danmark, 1911–1970 (Århus, Denmark: Systime 1996), 36.

46. Polizei-Präsident, Abteilung I, to Minister for Trade and Industry, 11 April 1918, regarding the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Addier- und Sortiermaschinen, and Geschäftsaufsicht über die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Addier- und Sortiermaschinen, June 15, 1918, both in I/HA/Rep. 120 C VIII 1, No. 84 adhib. 18 Beiheft 2106, GS; CTR, Executive Committee Meeting, 30 January 1914; CTR Executive Committee Meeting Minutes, IBM; Goerlitz, Zur Geschichte der Powers-Maschine.

47. Goerlitz, Zur Geschichte der Powers-Maschine, cites a letter from Dehomag to their customers noting the declining importance of a printing tabulator.

48. Blatt für Patent-, Muster- und Zeichenwessen 23 (1917): 33–41. The two contested patents were H. Hollerith, Vorrichtung zum Sortieren von Zählkarten für statistische Angabe u.dgl., [German] Patent 139,022 (1903, valid from 1901), and H. Hollerith, Statistische Maschine mit Stiftkasten, dessen bewegliche Stifte bei der Bearbeitung der Angaben durch Lochungen einer Angabekarte hindurchtreten Order von der Karte zurückhalten werden, [German] Patent 228,316 (1910, valid from 1909). Patent 139,022 expired in 1916, and Patent 228,316 expired in 1924. (Hollerith’s German Patent 139,022 corresponded to his U.S. Patent 685,608 of 1901.) The German patents were valid for fifteen years from the date of filing (“Patentgesetz” from 7 April 1891, Reichs-Gesetzblatt, Berlin, 1891:12, article 7).

49. Goerlitz, Zur Geschichte der Powers-Maschine.

50. Stephan H. Lindner, Das Rechtskommisariat für die Behandlung feindlichem Vermögens im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Stuttgart, Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1991), 16–18. During the First World War, this surveillance was a state assignment. The archives of the custody of Dehomag and the German Powers agency are in GS.

51. Report, Regarding the Geschäftsaufsicht über die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Addier- und Sortiermaschinen, 15 June 1918; F. Krause, Zwangsverwalter, Schlussbericht über die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Addier- & Sortiermaschinen, 1 August 1919; P. Roeder, Zwangsverwalter, to Minister for Trade and Industry, 15 September 1923; all three in I./HA/Rep. 120 C VIII 1, No. 84 adhib. 18 Beiheft 2106, GS.

52. Karl Hardach, Wirtschaftsgeschichte Deutschland im 20. Jahrhundert (Göttingen, Gemany: Vandenhoech & Ruprecht, 1976), 20–21.

53. Gennerich, “Erste vollständige Kontrollbuchhaltung mit Hollerith in Deutschland 1915–1922,” (1950) [manuscript], B95/88, Wirtschaftsarchiv Baden-Württemberg.

54. Krause, Bericht, 24 June 1918.

55. Note, Treuhänder für das feindliche Vermögen to Minister für Handel und Gewerbe, March 25, 1918, I./HA/Rep. 120 C VIII 1, Nr. 84 adhib. 18 Beiheft 2104, GS.

56. W. Heidinger to F. Krause, 13 June 1918, I.HA/Rep. 120 C VIII 1 Nr.84 adhib. 18 Beiheft 2104, GS; Festschrift, 11; Petzold, Rechnende Maschinen, 205.

57. H. Tolle and F. Bauer, Einstellvorrichtung für Rechenmaschinen und ihrliche Maschine, [German] Patent 316,962, filed 1914 and issued 1920; H. Tolle, Kontaktvorrichtung für elektromotorisch angetriebene Maschinen mit begrenztem Stellweg, [German] Patent 300,935, filed 1915 and issued 1917; H. Tolle, Vorrichtung für elektrisch angetriebene Maschinen mit begrenztem Arbeitsweg, [German] Patent 306,519, filed 1915 and issued 1918; H. Tolle, Maschine zum Sortieren gelochter Karten für statistische Zwecke mit einer Abtastvorrichtung für nur eine beliebig einstellbare Kartenspalte, [German] Patent 324,110, filed 1916 and issued 1921; Festschrift, 11, 18.

58. H. Tolle, Tastenmaschine mit Kraftantrieb, [German] Patent 335,645, filed 1917 and issued 1921; H. Tolle, Schreib-, Druck- u.dgl. Maschine mit Kraftantrieb, Zusatz zu Patent. 335,645, [German] Patent 345,366, filed 1920 and issued 1921.

59. See, for example, H. Tolle, Zehnerschuttwerk für Zählwerke, [German] Patent 346,478, filed 1920 and issued 1922; H. Tolle, Einrichtung zur Steuerung von statistischen und ähnlichen Maschinen durch zwischen Walzpaaren hindurchgeführte Lochkarten oder Lochstreifen, [German] Patent 367,982, filed 1920 and issued 1923; H. Tolle, Zählwerk für Addition und Substraktion mit Wendegetriebe, [German] Patent 375,563, filed 1920 and issued 1923; H. Tolle, Typensegmentschreibvorrichtung für Rechenmaschinen, [German] Patent 371,085, filed 1920 and issued 1923; H. Tolle, Sortiermaschine, besonders für gelochte Zählkarten, [German] Patent 375,189, filed 1921 and issued 1923); Dehomag, Tabelliermaschine mit Kraftantrieb, [German] Patent 391,467, filed 1922 and issued 1924.

60. Festschrift, 11.

61. F. Krause, Bericht No. 1, 24 June 1918; W. Heidinger, “Bericht,” 18 June 1943, R87/6248, Akte 921/45, Bundesarchiv, Berlin. In this document, Heidinger purported that the 1922 debt was 450 trillion marks, which was based on a later exchange rate, probably from August or September 1923. Exchange rates from Jürgen Schneider, Oskar Schwarzer, Friedrich Zellfelder, ed., Währungen der Welt, vol. 2: Europäische und Nordamerikanische Divisenkurse 1914–1951 (Stuttgart, Germany: In Kommission bei F. Steiner, 1997).

62. Gunnar Nerheim and Helge W. Nordvik, ‘Ikke bare maskiner’: Historien om IBM i Norge 1935–1985 (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1986), 26–27

63. CTR Special Executive and Finance Committee Meeting minutes, 15 June 1922, and CTR Executive and Finance Committee Meeting minutes, 13 February 1923, in IBM Archives; Festschrift, 12; W. Heidinger, “Bericht,” 18 June 1943, 313–314.

64. Edwin Black, IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation (New York: Crown, 2001), for example, the notes on 432–435.

65. Agreement between TMC and Dehomag, 24 November 1919, B95/95, Wirtschaftsarchiv Baden-Württemberg; CTR Special Executive and Finance Committee Meeting, 15 June 1922, CTR Executive and Finance Committee Meeting, 13 February 1923; Festschrift, 12; W. Heidinger, “Bericht,” 18 June 1943.

66. Michel Huber, “Lucien March, 1859–1933,” Journal de la Société de statistique de Paris 74 (1933): 269–280, on 269; Michel Huber, “Quarante années de la statistique générale de la France, 1896–1936,” Journal de la Société de statistique de Paris 78 (1937): 179–213, 179–182.

67. Eda Kranakis, Constructing a Bridge: An Exploration of Engineering Culture, Design, and Research in Nineteenth-Century France and America (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), 217–219, 220–223.

68. Huber, “Lucien March”; Alain Desrosières, La politique des grand nombres: Hhistoire de la raison statistique (Paris: Éditions de la découverte, 1993), 197–198.

69. Lucien March, Système de dépouillement de renseignement collectifs, sans transcription préalable, sur des cartes perforées, dit classi-compteur, [French] Patent 288,618, filed and issued 1899; Lucien March, Une classi-compteur-imprimeur (système March), [French] Patent 303,965, filed and issued 1900, both in Archives d’INPI; Michel Huber, Cours de démographie et de statistique sanitaire, I: Introduction à l’étude démographiques et sanitaires (Paris: Harmann et Cie., 1938), 50–51; Robert Ligonnière, Préhistoire et histoire des ordinateurs (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1987), 144–146.

70. Pietra Gaetano, “La prima classificatrice meccanica è stata ideata da un italiano,” Barometro economico italiano, 1934, 461–465; Huber, Cours de démographie, 49–50.

71. Résultats statistiques du Dénombrement de 1891 (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1894), table 7; Résultats statistiques du recensement générale de la population effectué le 5 mars 1911 (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1913), 1:1, table 4.

72. Huber, “Quarante années,” 206.

73. Huber, “Quarante années, “ 181–182, 206; Alfred Sauvy, “Statistique Générale et Service National de Statistique de 1919 à 1944,” Journal de la Société de statistique de Paris 116 (1975): 34–43, on 35. Only a minor part of the archives of Statistique générale de la France from the 1930s and 1940s is preserved. Information by Alain Desrosières, Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE), in May 1998.

74. Report on the classi-compteur machine in the French Statistical Bureau, 7 October 1912; Ministère de l’Intérieur, Bruxelles, to HMSO, London, 4 November 1912; both STAT 12/16/3; Jan van der Ende, Knopen, kaarten and chips. De geschiedenis van de automatiseing bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Voorburg/Heerlen, the Netherlands: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, 1991), 28–29.

75. Emil Borel, “La statistique et l’organisation de la présidence du conseil ministres,” Journal de la Société de statistique Paris 61 (1920): 9–13; Huber, “Quarante années,” 180–207; Henri Brunle, “A propos de l’article de A. Sauvy …,” Journal de la Société de statistique de Paris 116 (1975): 244–246; Béatrice Touchelay, L’INSEE: Des origines à 1961: Évolution et relation avec la réalité économique, politique et sociale (Thèse de Doctorat en Histoire Économique présentée à la Faculté de Lettre de Paris XII, Paris, 1993), 24–37; Mireille Moutardier, ed., Cinquante ans d’INSEEou la conquête du chiffre (Paris: INSEE, 1996), 19–25.

76. Jean-Charles Asselain, “La stagnation économique,” in Entre l’état et le marché: L’économie française des années 1880 à nos jours, ed. Maurice Lévy-Leboyer and Jean-Claude Casanova (Paris: Gallimard, 1991), 199–250; Maurice Lévy-Leboyer, Introduction, Entre l’état et le marché, 251–255; Michel Lescure, “L’intervention d’État: Myths et realités. La manque de ressources: Les années 1880–1935,” Entre l’état et le marché, 256–274.

77. Gerd Hardach, Der Erste Weltkrieg (Munich: Deutsche Taschenbuch Verlag, 1973), 96–101, 143–144.

78. Lescure, “La manque de ressources,” 267–273

79. Lescure, “La manque de ressources,” 256.

80. Aimée Motet, Les logiques de l’entreprise: La rationalisation dans l’industrie française de l’entre-deux-guerres (Paris: Éditions de l’écoles des hautes études en sciences sociales, 1997), 15–110; Delfine Gardey, Un monde en mutation: Les employés de bureau en France 1890–1930: Féminisation, mécanisation, rationalisation (PhD diss., Université Paris 7, 1995), 824–836; Ludovic Cailluet, “Accounting and Accountants as Essential Elements in the Development of Central Administration during the Inter-War Period: Management Ideology and Technology at Alais, Froges et Camargue,” Accounting, Business and Financial History 7 (1997): 295–314.

81. Jaques Vernay, Chroniques de la Compagnie IBM France (Paris: IBM France, 1988), 17, 23, 24. In 1935, the company was called Société française Hollerith, machines comptable et enregistreuse; from 1936–1947, it was called Compagnie électro-comptable de France; after 1948, Compagnie IBM France.

82. Vernay, Chroniques, 17–18, 20.

83. The Caisse des Dépôts is a public financial institution that was created in 1816 to manage private funds that the public authorities wanted placed under special protection, for example, escrow accounts or funds deposited with lawyers and notaries.

84. List, “Administration publiques et privées où les machines française Bull on remplacé les machines concurrentes étrangères,” August 1934, folder DARC 193/51, box 92VEN 08-1, Archives Bull; Vernay, Chroniques, 42–43.

85. The French “Loi du 5–8 juillet 1844, sur les brevets d’invention.” This law was valid until 1959, Albert Chavanne and Jean-Jacques Burst, Droit de la propriété industrielle (Paris: Editions Dalloz, 1998), 25–26.

86. Tabulating Machine Company, Dispotif contrôlant automatiquement les appareils enregistreurs d’un tabulateur, [French] Patent 487,667, filed 1917 and issued 1918.

87. René Carmille, “Société anonyme des machines à statistique, Rapport particulier d’enquête No. 80,” 23 January 1935, 3–4; box N77, folder 6, Archives du Service historique de l’Armée de terre, Château de Vincennes, Paris; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 68.

88. “Effects on Samas/Cimac of the new arrangements with R. R. Inc.,” dated 4 April 1950, Martin Campbell-Kelly’s personal archive; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 70, 75.

89. John Connolly, A History of Computing in Europe (New York: IBM), E-6.

90. Précis of a talk given by H. R. Russell on 14 January 1931 on “Worldwide Use of Powers Machines,” B/5/B, Powers-Samas box 1, ICL archives, NAHC.

91. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 22–23.

92. Chandler, Scale and Scope.

93. Maurice Lévy-Leboyer, “The Large Corporation in Modern France,” in Managerial Hierarchies: Comparative Perspectives on the Rise of the Modern Industrial Enterprise, ed., Alfred J. Chandler and Herman Daems (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980), 117–160, on 118–119.

Chapter Seven: Different Roads to European Punched-Card Bookkeeping

1. Derek Fraser, The Evolution of the British Welfare State: A History of Social Policy since the Industrial Revolution (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), 164–168; Pat Thane, The Foundations of the Welfare State (London: Longman, 1982), 75–77.

2. Fraser, The Evolution of the British Welfare State, 176–182, 188; Thane, The Foundations of the Welfare State, 78–88; Mary MacKinnon, “Living Standards, 1870–1914,” in The Economic History of Britain since 1700, vol. 2: 1860–1939, ed. Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 265–290, on 290.

3. Arnold Wilson and Hermann Levy, Industrial Assurance: A Historical and Critical Study (London: Oxford University Press, 1937), 16–39; R. W. Bernard, A Century of Service: The Story of the Prudential, 1848–1948 (London: Prudential Assurance Company, 1948), 33–46, 91; Martin Campbell-Kelly, “Large Scale Data Processing in Prudential, 1850–1930,” Accounting, Business and Financial History 2 (1992): 117–139, on 118–129.

4. Bernard, A Century of Service, 90, 139; Campbell-Kelly, “Large Scale Data Processing,” 129–130.

5. Charles Foster and the Accounting and Tabulating Machine Corporation of Great Britain Ltd., Improvements in and relating to tabulating machines, [British] Patent 108,942, filed 1916 and issued 1917; “Powers-Samas Accounting Machines Com Ltd.” (typescript), 9, History Document no .771, Vickers Archives, Cambridge University Archives; Powers-Samas Gazette 22 (1953), 2–3; Lars Heide’s interview with K. Petersen, formerly the Danish Powers agency, 1986.

6. “Powers-Samas Accounting Machines,” 9.

7. “Powers-Samas Accounting Machines,” 2–3; Martin Campbell-Kelly, ICL: A Business and Technical History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), 44–45.

8. Bernard, A Century of Service, 139; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 46, 394–395.

9. F. G. S. English, “The Measure of Progress,” Powers-Samas Gazette 22 (1953): 2–5, on 2–3; L. E. Brougham of Powers-Samas interviewed by B. G. Bellringer (typescript, 1977), 7, International Computers, Ltd. (ICL)/Powers-Samas, box 1, National Archive for the History of Computing, Manchester, England (NAHC); “Powers-Samas Accounting Machines,” 9–10; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 47–48.

10. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 54–55, 69; Brougham interviewed by Bellringer, 3–4.

11. Frank P. Symmons, “Mechanical Aids for Life Assurance Records,” The Insurance Records February 1929, 86–93.

12. “How Ordinary Branch Bonus Certificates Are Prepared at the Prudential Assurance Co., Ltd.,” The Powers-Samas Magazine, August 1937, 5–8; B. H. Cooper, “How the Powers System Handles Free Policies at the Prudential Assurance Co., Ltd.,” The Powers-Samas Magazine March 1939, 2–6.

13. C. Ralph Curtis, “The ‘Punched Card System’: Mechanisation in Gas Offices,” Gas Journal, 14 June 1933, 807–809; A. Newling, “The System of Costing and Accountancy Adopted by R. & H. Green & Silley Weir, Ltd., by Means of Powers’ Machines,” Powers-Samas Magazine October 1935, 2–5; C. Ralph Curtis, “Bankers’ Payments and the Punch Card,” Powers-Samas Magazine December 1936, 3–6; O. S. Ross, “Complete Accounting on Powers Machines,” Powers-Samas Magazine February 1938, 4–9.

14. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 53.

15. “Powers-Samas Accounting Machines,” 15.

16. “Powers Accounting Machine Manufacturing System,” American Machinist, European Edition, 26 (1927), 171–174, 182–184, on 171.

17. “A Short History of Powers-Samas 1919–1950,” 5–6, B/5/5, Powers-Samas, box 1, NAHC; English, “The Measure of Progress,” 3–4.

18. English, “The Measure of Progress,” 5.

19. Brougham interviewed by Bellringer, 9.

20. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 73–76, 77–78, 94. In 1936 the manufacturing company was renamed Powers Accounting Machines Limited, which was considered preferable to the previous name: The Accounting and Tabulating Corporation of Great Britain Limited.

21. “Powers-Samas Accounting Machines,” 29.

22. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 82.

23. The Office Machine Manual (London: International Office Machines Research Limited, 1937–1940), vol. 1, sec. 1–2; Curtis, “Punched Card System,” 23. In Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 85, this card is said to have been 2 by 4¾ inches.

24. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 84.

25. Powers-Samas Magazine July–August 1935, 4–5; February 1938, 5.

26. “Electricity Billing and Statistics on Powers-Four at the Westminster Electric Supply Corporation, Limited,” Powers-Samas Magazine September 1935, 4–7; M. G. Middleton, “Stock Control at Messrs. Joseph Lucas, Ltd.,” Powers-Samas Magazine December 1935, 3–7; B. A. Shotman, “Purchase Ledger and Purchase Analysis on Powers-Four,” Powers-Samas Magazine January 1936, 2–6.

27. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 86.

28. C. D. Lake, Improvements in or relating to record-cards for use in statistical machines, [British] Patent 315,881, filed and issued 1939, equivalent to C. D. Lake, Record sheet for tabulating machines, [U.S.] Patent 1,772,492, filed 1928 and issued 1930.

29. “Some New Powers Developments,” Powers-Samas Magazine July 1936, 8.

30. Powers-One, The Office Machine Manual, vol. 1, sec. 1-2, 1–5; Powers-Samas, section 1-2, 2.

31. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 40–43; Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR) Executive Committee Meeting 25 June 1912, International Business Machines (IBM) Archives, New York.

32. “The British Tabulating Machine Company Limited 1907–1957,” 6–7, typescript, NAHC; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 50–51, 62–64.

33. “A New Type of Tabulating Machine,” The Engineer, 1924, 274–276.

34. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 55–57, 392–393.

35. “The Hollerith Tabulator,” Engineering, 26 January 1934, 102–103; “Punched-Hole Accounting. Notes and Illustrations Describing the Operation and Application of ‘Hollerith’ Machines,” British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) typescript 1935/36, 107e-113, ICL/B/5/A/BTM, box 2, NAHC.

36. “A Short History of the British Tabulating Machine Company,” BTM 1952 (typescript), 5, ICL/B/5/A/BTM, box 5, NAHC; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 40–51.

37. “A New Type of Tabulating Machine,” The Engineer, 1924, 274–276.

38. “A Short History of the British Tabulating Machine Company,” 4–6; “The British Tabulating Machine Company Limited,” 3:1, 3:2.

39. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 76.

40. Harry W. Richardson, Economic Recovery in Britain, 1932–9 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967), 236–265; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 79–80.

41. Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 80–81.

42. Harold Hall Keen, Improvements in or relating to record-card-controlled statistical machines, [British] Patent Specification 314,928, filed 1928 and issued 1929; Harold Hall Keen, Improvements in or relating to record-card-controlled statistical machines, [British] Patent Specification 339,935, filed 1929 and issued 1930; Harold Hall Keen, Improvements in or relation to record-card-controlled statistical printing machines, [British] Patent Specification 359,037, filed 1930 and issued 1931; Harold Hall Keen, Improvements in or relation to subtracting mechanisms, [British] Patent Specification 392,962, filed 1930 and issued 1931; Harold Hall Keen, Improvements in or relating to record-card-controlled statistical machines, [British] Patent Specification 422,135, filed 1933 and issued 1935; Harold Hall Keen, Improvements in or relating to record-card-controlled statistical machines, [British] Patent Specification 422,179, filed 1933 and issued 1935; Harold Hall Keen, “The Hollerith Tabulator,” Engineering, 26 (1934): 102; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 90–92.

43. BTM Board Minutes, 29 January 1935, copy supplied by Martin Campbell-Kelly; Harold Hall Keen, Improvements in or relating to record-card-controlled printing mechanism, [British] Patent Specification 446,104, filed 1934 and issued 1936; Harold Hall Keen, Improvements in or relating to record-card-controlled statistical printing machines, [British] Patent Specification 446,521, filed 1934 and issued 1936; Harold Hall Keen, Improvements in or relating to multiplying machines, [British] Patent Specification 436,136, filed 1934 and issued 1935; “The British Tabulating Machine Company Limited,” 3:5; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 100–101.

44. Harold Hall Keen, Improvements in or relating to record-card-controlled statistical machines, [British] Patent Specification 422,135, filed 1933 and issued 1935; Harold Hall Keen, Improvements in or relating to record-card-controlled printing mechanism, [British] Patent Specification 446,104, filed 1934 and issued 1936; Harold Hall Keen, Improvements in or relating to record-card-controlled statistical printing machines, [British] Patent Specification 446,521, filed 1934 and issued 1936; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 92.

45. The Tabulator 1936–1940; Accounting by Electricity (London: BTM, c.1940).

46. Exceptions were the use of punched cards for addressing in the following cases: “Invoicing,” The Tabulator May 1937, 2–4; “Rent-Roll and Rent Collection,” The Tabulator July 1938, 2–4; “Service,” The Tabulator August–September 1940, 3–5; “The Kraft Cheese Co.’s ‘Hollerith’ method,” The Tabulator October 1940, 2–3.

47. The Tabulator November 1937, 2; “Invoices and Ledgers,” The Tabulator October 1938, 2–4; “Alphabetical Pay-Roll,” The Tabulator November 1938, 2–4; “‘Hollerith’ in representative industries: Cork Manufacturing Company Ltd.,” The Tabulator November–December 1939, 4–7; “Shipbuilding and Engineering Costs: ‘Hollerith’ Procedure at J. Samuel White & Co. Ltd,” The Tabulator May 1940, 2–4.

48. Max Sering, Deutschland unter dem Dawes Plan (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1928), 48–81; Karl Hardach, Wirtschaftsgeschichte Deutschland im 20. Jahrhundert (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoech & Ruprecht, 1976), 41.

49. Festschrift zur 25–Jahresfeier der Deutschen Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft (Berlin: Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft [Dehomag], 1935), 72–73.

50. Gary Herrigel, Industrial Constructions: The Sources of German Industrial Power (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 117–118; Wilhelm True, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Technik Deutschlands im 19. Jahrhundert, Gebhardt Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte (Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1975), vol. 17, 218–219.

51. Ursula-Maria Ruser, Die Reichsbahn als Reparationsobjekt (Freiburg, Germany: Eisenbahn-Kurier Verlag, 1981), 202, 205.

52. James W. Angell, The Recovery of Germany (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1929), 68–69.

53. Dorpmüller, “Rationalisierung bei der Reichsbahn,” Verkehrstechnische Woche 22 (1928): 1–9; Erich Dombrowski, Die Wirkungen der Reparationsverpflichtugen auf die Wirtschaftsführung der Deutschen Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft (Berlin: Dochterdruch, 1930), 125–137; Gaier, “Die Lochkarte zur Abrechnung und Kontrolle des Güterverkehrs,” Zeitung des Vereins Deutscher Eisenbahnverwaltungen, 1924, 960; Stinner, “Das Lochkartenverfahren und seine Verwendung im Eisenbahndienst,” Verkehrstechnische Woche 18 (1924): 422–427; Festschrift, 79–80, 98.

54. Pankraz Görl, “Technisierung der Administration. Maschinelle Datenverarbeitung und die Rationalisierung der Verwaltung in Deutschland 1924–1945” (unpublished M.A. thesis, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, 1993), 72–82; Fritz Reinhardt, “Lochkartenmässige Betriebsrechnung in den Anstaltsapotheken,” Hollerith-Nachrichten, 17 (1932): 202–208

55. Görl, “Technisierung,” 82–85.

56. Festschrift, 78.

57. Direktionsbericht der Zentralwerksverwaltung 1924/25, 12–13, 15/Lg/562, Siemens Archiv; WWF Jahresbericht 1926/27, 4; WWF Jahresbericht 1927/28, 5–6; the latter two in 15/Lc/816, Siemens Archiv.

58. 1928 contracts between Dehomag and Siemens-Schuchertwerke, Nuremberg, 34/Ld/6, Siemens Archiv; Einführung in die Arbeitsgebiete der Hollerith-Abteilung, 9 July 1937, 34/Ld/6, Siemens Archiv; Aufteilung der Belegschaft der Abteilungen AP-MAR-VG nach dem Stand vom 7. Mai 1942, 10, 34/Ld/6, Siemens Archiv; Wilfred Feldenkirchen, Siemens 1918–1945 (Munich: R. Piper, 1995), 231–232.

59. Alfred Böhme, “Bericht über die Entstehung und Werdegang der ZWR,” 1966, 21/Lg/889, Siemens Archiv.

60. Robert Feindler, Das Hollerith-Lochkarten-Verfahren für maschinelle Buchhaltung und Statistik (Berlin: Verlag von Reimar Hobbing, 1929), 332–341. For similar descriptions, see Albert Schad, Das Lochkartenverfahren im industriellen Rechnungswesen (Stuttgart: C. E. Poeschel Verlag, 1930), 66–76, 102–109; J. C. Eichenauer, Analyse der Wirtschaftlichkeit des Hollerith-Lochkarten-Systems (Stuttgart: C. E. Poelschel, 1933), 26–52.

61. Report, Dehomag (Rotke/Humel) to Reichskommissar für die Behandlung feindlichen Vermögens, 20 January 1942, R-87/6248, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

62. IBM, Executive and Finance Committee meeting, 29 April 1924, IBM Archives; Festschrift, 11; Report, Dehomag (Rottke/Hummel) to Reichskommissar für die Behandlung feindlichen Vermögens, 20 January 1942, R-87/6248, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

63. Festschrift, 19.

64. Hollerith Mitteilungen, 4 (1914): 3–6.

65. Max Zander, “Die Lochkarte im Bankbetrieb,” Die Lochkarte und das Powers-System, 10 (1932): 69–76.

66. Rudolf Lorant, “Maschinelle Kontokorrentbuchhaltung bei Großbanken,” Organisation (Berlin), 9 (1925): 403–410; Rudolf Lorant, “Die Lochkartenmaschinen im Dienste der Bank-Buchhaltung,” Der Zahlungsverkehr, 8 (1926): 228–237; undisclosed punched-card brand at Provinzialbank Pommern, in Range, “Lochkarten-system bei der Provinzialbank,” 171–179. Powers punched cards were used in Dresdner Bank: Friedrich-Wilhelm Henning, “Innovation und Wandel der Beschäftigen Struktur im Kreditgewerbe von der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts bis 1948,” Bankhistorisches Archiv 12 (1986): 52–53; Meyen, 120 Jahre Dresdner Bank, 95.

67. Heinrich Adalbert Weinlich, Debit and credit tabulator, [U.S.] Patent 1,917,002, issued 1933 (filed in Germany in 1926); Friedrich W. Kistermann, “The Way to the First Automatic Sequence-Controlled Printing Calculator: The 1935 DEHOMAG D11 Tabulator,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 17:2 (1995): 33–49, on 40–42.

68. Alvin E. Gray, IBM Development Manual, Book I: Numerical Tabulators (New York: IBM, 1956), 59–65, box A-25–2, folder: History/num. tab., IBM Archives; Historical Records of Card and Machine Development (New York: IBM, 1955), 16.

69. “Das Hollerith-Lochkartenverfahren. Die Hilfsmittel zur Formularbeschriftung an der Hollerith-Tabelliermaschine Type D11,” Hollerith-Nachrichten 93 (1939): 1403–1410.

70. “Die schreibende Tabelliermaschine Type BK, Universalausführung,” Hollerith Nachrichten 38 (1934): 439–440.

71. “Die schreibende Tabelliermaschine,” 485–490.

72. “Hollerith-Tabelliermaschinen Type D11 und Type D9,” Hollerith Nachrichten 74 (1937): 1022–1024; Kistermann, “The Way to the First,” 43–46.

73. “Powers,” Organisation (Berlin), 25 (1923), 138–140; H. Goerlitz, “Zur Geschichte der Powers-Machine,” (typescript), 1934, History archive of IBM Deutschland.

74. R. Lorant, “Maschinelle Kontokorrentbuchhaltung bei Großbanken, Organisation” [Berlin), 27 (1925): 403–410; R. Lorant, “Die Lochkartenmaschinen im Dienste der Bank-Buchhaltung,” Der Zahlungsverkehr 8 (1926): 228–237; “Der Powers Buchstabendrucker,” Die Lochkarte und das Powers-System 13 (1930): 105–106.

75. Ralph Lorant, “Lohnabrechnung der Großbetriebe mit Hilfe des Powers-Lochkarten-Systems,” Organisation (Berlin) 28 (1926): 677–684.

76. Jan Büchter, Kartenlochvorrichtung zum Anbau an Transportmitteln z. B. Eisenbahnwagen, [German] Patent 431,112, filed 1924 and issued 1926; Jan Büchter, Vorrichtung zum Einstellen einer Addiermaschine durch Lochkarten, [German] Patent 438,093, filed 1924 and issued 1926; Jan Büchter, Fühlvorrichtung für mit Lochkarten arbeitende Sortier, Tabellier- und ähnliche Maschinen, [German] Patent 442,236, filed 1926 and issued 1927; Johannes Josephus [Jan] Büchter, Martin Lebeis, and Rezö Lorant, Statistische Tabelliermaschine mit selbsttätiger Summensteuerung, [German] Patent 464,197, filed 1926 and issued 1928; Rezö Lorant, Einrichtung an Lochmaschinen für statistische Zählkarten zum Einstellen von Komplementärzahlen, [German] Patent 451,940, filed 1927 and issued 1928; Jan Büchter, Martin Lebeis, and Rezö Lorant, Maschine zur Prüfung der Lochungen in Lochkarten für statistische Zwecke, [German] Patent 461,264, filed 1927 and issued 1928.

77. Frederick Reed, “The World Tour: Germany,” Keeping Tabs, Powers Accounting Machine Corporation 18 (August 1933): 1–4; Goerlitz, “Zur Geschichte der Powers-Machine.”

78. “Die 90stellige Powers-Lochkarte,” Die Lochkarte und das Powers System 27 (1931): 263–264.

79. German Powers balance sheets 1939–1940, 1940–1941, 23, vol. 1, R87/6198; Dehomag balance sheets 1939, 1940, 19, 22, vol. 1, R87/6248; Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

80. James Powers, Statistische Tabelliermaschine, bei welcher die nach verschiedenen Gruppen gelochten Karten nur innerhalb der aufeinanderfolgenden Gruppen zur Tabellierung und Summierung gelangen, [German] Patent 333,413, issued 1921 (valid from 1915); The Tabulating Machine Company, Selbsttätige Tabelliervorrichtung für Zählkarten, [German] Patent 406,744, issued 1924 (valid from 1914); Blatt für Patent-, Muster- und Zeichenwessens, 1930, 6–7.

81. For 1928 prices, see Howard Sylvester Ellis, Exchange Control in Central Europe (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971), 381–382.

82. Norbert Frei, Führerstaat: Nationalsozialistische Herrschaft 1933 bis 1945 (Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1987), 85–90.

83. IBM, Executive and Finance Committee minutes, 5 June 1933, IBM Archives; Festschrift, 16, 42.

84. W. Heidinger, in Denkschrift zur Einweihung der neuen Arbeitsstätte der deutschen Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft m.b.H. in Berlin-Lichterfelde am 8. Januar 1934 (Berlin: Dehomag, 1934), 40.

85. Festschrift.

86. H. Rottke, in Denkschrift, 35–37.

87. Petra Bräutigam, Mittelständische Unternehmer in Nationalsozialismus: Wirtschaftliche Entwicklungen und Soziale Verhältnisse in der Schuh- und Lederindustrie Baden und Württembergs (Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 1997), 116, 118; Anne Sudrow, “Das ‘deutsche Rohstoffwunder’ und die Schuhindustrie. Schuhproduktion unter der Bedingung der nationalsozialistischen Autarkiepolitik,” Blätter für Technikgeschichte 60 (1998): 63–92; Feldenkirchen, Siemens, 663, 680.

88. Festschrift, 14; Bericht, Dehomag to Reichskommissar für die Behandlung feindlichen Vermögens, 20 January 1942, R-87/6248, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

89. Black, IBM and the Holocaust, 71–175, 209–217, 282–294, 346–347, 371–372, 390–391.

90. Frei, Führerstaat, 257; Festschrift, 74.

91. Organisation und Kapital der Powers GmbH, 1 July 1941, and Bilanz, R-87/6198, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde; Die Lochkarte und das Siemens-Powers-System, 69 (1935), 709.

92. Minutes of the Meeting of the Remington Rand (RR) Board of Directors, 16 October 1934, RR Directors’ Minutes, vol. 3, 157, box 15, acc. 1910, Hagley Museum and Archive, Wilmington, DE (Hagley).

93. The high-voltage Siemens-Schuckertwerke in Nuremberg simultaneously established a Dehomag installation.

94. For example, Paul Mansel, Elektrisch gesteuerte Sortiermaschine für mit Lochsymbolen versehene Karten oder Papierstreifen, [German] Patent 550,916, filed 1928 and issued 1932; Paul Mansel, Steurungsvorrichtung für die Typen- oder Zählwerksschreiben von Lochkarten-Auswertmaschinen oder Rechenmaschinen, [German] Patent 551,150, filed 1928 and issued 1932; Fritz Winkler, Vorrichtung zum Selbstätigen Rücktransport des Einstellwagens an Kartenloch- und Druckmaschinen, [German] Patent 558,186, filed 1928 and issued 1932; Fritz Winkler, Verbindung einer Tabelliermaschine mit einer Lochmaschine, [German] Patent 582,632, filed 1929 and issued 1933; Paul Mansel, Auswertungsvorrichtung für mit Lochkombinationen versehene Lochkarten, [German] Patent 550,959, filed 1930 and issued 1932.

95. “Die Gemeinschaftsarbeit Siemens-Powers,” Die Lochkarte und das Powers-System, 64/65 (1934): 654–655, 660–663.

96. Feldenkirchen, Siemens, 243–447, 663.

97. RR, Board of Directors meeting, 7 June 1934, RR Directors Minute Book, no. 3, box 15, acc. 1910, Hagley; RR, Executive Committee of the Board of Directors meetings, 6 July 1935, 8 September 1936, RR Executive Committee Minute Book, no. 2, box 17, acc. 1910, Hagley; Contract between Powers and Siemens and Halske, 29 August 1934, 21/Lg/889, Siemens Archiv.

98. Note, Aufträge, 22 June 1939, 21/Lg/889, Siemens Archiv; B. Drost and F. Winckler, “Siemens-Powers-Kupplung Cordt-Universal,” Die Lochkarte und das Siemens-Powers System 70/71 (1935): 712–717; “Siemens-Powers Sortiermaschine,” Die Lochkarte und das Siemens-Powers System 75/76 (1935): 769; Hermann Fauth, “Die Lochkartenmässige Bearbeitung der Rechnungsstatistik in der Finanzstatistischen Abteilung der Reichshauptstadt Berlin,” Die Lochkarte und das Siemens-Powers-System 121 (1939): 1385–1392, on 1389–1390; “Der Powers-Hamenn Rechenautomat,” Die Lochkarte und das Siemens-Powers-System 138–140 (1940): 1481–1482.

99. Hahn and Roloff, “Aktenvermerk, Betr. Auslegung des Vertages S&H/Powers,” 10 February 1938; Voigt, “Die Entwicklung unseres Verhältniss zur Powers-GmbH, Berlin,” 9 April 1938; both in 21/Lg 889, Siemens Archiv.

100. “Die Gemeinschaftsarbeit Siemens-Powers,” 655.

101. “Die Grundzüge des Powers-Verfahrens,” Die Lochkarte und das Powers-System, 132–134 (1940): 1458–1469; Kurt Nonner, “Das Powers-Lochkarten-Verfahren in der Versicherung,” Die Lochkarte und das Powers-System, 135–137 (1940): 1469–1476, on 1474–1475; Werner Funk, “Die 90 selbige Lochkarte,” Die Lochkarte, 147 (1941): 1423–1427.

102. Aufträge, 22 June 1939 (see n 98).

103. Note, Voigt to Storch, Betr. Powers-GmbH., c. 6 April 1938; note, Voigt, Die Entwicklung unseres Verhältniss zur Powers-GmbH, Berlin, 9 April 1938; both 21/Lg889, Siemens Archiv.

104. Modern bank accounting on Powers Machines, as adopted by Banque d’Alsace et de Lorraine, France, Legal Correspondence, agreements. RR Law Department, box 1, folder: Bank of Alsace-Lorraine, France, 1930; acc. 1825, Hagley; Frederick Reed, “The World Tour: France,” Keeping Tabs, 17 (July 1933): 2–4.

105. List, Administration publiques et privées où les machines française Bull ont remplacé les machines concurrentes étrangères, August 1934, folder: DARC 193/51, box 92VEN 08-1, Archives Bull, Paris; Précis of a talk given on 14 January 1931, by H. R. Russell on “World-Wide Use of Powers Machines,” box 1, B/5/5 (Powers-Samas), NAHC; “Quelques références de la Compagnie electro-comptable de France,” Vincennes, 8 N 77, folder 6: attachment to letter, Compagnie electro-comptable to Ministry of War, 1 July 1938, 8N/77, Archives du Service historique de l’Armée de terre, Château de Vincennes, Paris; Jaques Vernay, Chroniques de la Compagnie IBM France (Paris: IBM France, 1988), 42–43.

106. List, Administration publiques et privées où les machines française Bull ont remplacé les machines concurrentes étrangères, August 1934, folder DARC 193/51, box 92VEN 08-1, Archives Bull; Précis of a talk by H. R. Russell.

107. Circular, “District ‘A’—concurrence Bull,” 18 November 1937, folder “Dossier reunion. box 26-12-51,” box 2.12, Archives Bull.

108. Marc Olivier Baruch, Servir l’État français (Paris: Fayard, 1997), 21–41.

109. Dominique Pagel, interview with Elie Doury, c. 1973, box 3, 94HIST-COM03, Archives Bull.

110. Circular 34, from P. Laval to the Minister of War, 24 December 1935, folder 6, box 8 N77, series N, Archives de l’Armée.

111. Accounting and Tabulating Machine Company board meetings, 26 September 1935, 2(?) December 1935, copies of minutes supplied by Martin Campbell-Kelly; René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 80: Concernant la Société anonymes des machines à statistique,” 1936, 4–7, folder 6, box N77, Archives de l’Armée; History Document no. 771, 30–31.

112. Powers-Samas, Accounting and Tabulating Machine Company board meetings, 25 January 1938, 16 March 1938, copies of minutes supplied by Martin Campbell-Kelly; RR Directors Meeting, June 27, 1939, Directors Minute Books no. 5, 58, box 15, series 1 (minute books), acc. 1910, Hagley; RR Executive Committee Meeting, 14 May 1940, Executive Committee Minute Book no. 3, 31–32, box 17, series 1, acc. 1910, Hagley; History Document No. 771, 34, 36. The development work at SAMAS did not result in its being awarded any patent in France in the 1930s.

113. Vernay, Chroniques, 27–28.

114. Vernay, Chroniques, 264.

115. IBM, Executive and Financial Committee meeting, 29 April 1924, IBM Archives.

116. Georges Ziguelde, Perfectionnements aux machines comptables ou autres machines analogues, [French] Patent 705,529, filed 1930 and issued 1931; Louis Momon, Perfectionnements aux machines à statistiques ou autres machines analogues, [French] Patent 711,031, filed and issued 1931; Société internationale des machines commerciales (SIMC), Perfectionnements aux machines trieuses de cartes enregistreuses dans le but d’obtenir une sélection automatique de groupe de cartes, [French] Patent 719,566, filed and issued 1931; SIMC, Perfectionnement aux machines d’impression et de mise en liste commandées par des cartes perforées, [French] Patent 731,213, filed and issued 1932; SIMC, Dispositif de commande d’une machine à écrire par l’intermédiaire d’une perforatrice de cartes enregistreuses, [French] Patent 731,774, filed and issued 1932; SIMC, Perfectionnements aux dispositifs de contrôle automatique dans les machines tabulatrices, [French] Patent 748,466, filed and issued 1933; Georges Ziguelde, Perfectionnements aux machines comptables, [French] Patent 749,306, filed 1932 and issued 1933; SIMC, Perfectionnements aux machines pour le triage des cartes perforées, [French] Patent 792,997, filed 1934 and issued 1935; SIMC, Perfectionnements aux machines comptables, [French] Patent 796,071, filed 1934 and issued 1936. In addition, IBM filed many separate patents in France that corresponded to their patents in the United States.

117. John Connolly, A History of Computing in Europe (New York: IBM, 1968), 21.

118. Vernay, Chroniques, 24, 25.

119. René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier, No. 78: Fourniture d’un équipement mécanographique au Service de la Liquidation des Transports,” 16 December 1935, 19, folder 6, box 8 N77, series N, Archives de l’Armée.

120. Gaston Marie, “René Carmille. Son Oeuvre” [obituary], Journal de la Société de statistique de Paris 86 (1945): 145–148; [Robert Ligonnière], “Petite histoire des statistique, “Ordinateurs, 25 November 1985, 44–48; Jean-Pierre Azéma, Raymond Lévy-Bruhl, and Béatrice Touchelay, Mission d’analyse historique sur le système de statistique français de 1940 à 1945 (Paris: INSEE, 1998), 11–12.

121. Jean Delmas, “L’organisation militaire en France—l’armée,” in Histoire militaire de la France, ed. Guy Pedroncini (Paris: P.U.F., 1992), vol. 2, 429–430.

122. M. Conquet, “Rapport général sur l’évolution de l’application des procédés mécanographique dans les Services de la Guerre,” 11 March 1937, folder 5, box 8 N77, series N, Archives de l’Armée.

123. René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 71: Fabrications de machines à statistique qui peuvent être utilisées par les services du Département de la Guerre,” 14 May 1935, 2–4; René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 105 concernant le position de la Compagnie Bull vis-à-vis du Département de la Guerre,” 11 March 1938, 18; both in folder 6, box 8 N77, series N, Archives de l’Armée.

This development was simultaneous with the failed attempt starting in and after early 1935 to mechanize the administration of conscription and mobilization using Bull punched card machines, see chapter 8.

124. René Carmille, La mécanographie dans les administrations, 1st ed. (Paris: Recueil Sirey, 1936), 77–96.

125. “Rapport sur l’Atelier de Construction de la Compagnie des Machines Bull,” 12 July 1936, folder DAC I 193/51, box 92VEN 08-1, Archives Bull.

126. Carmille, La mécanographie (1936), 77, 96.

127. Lars Heide, “Facilitating and Restricting a Challenger: Patents and Standards in the Development of the Bull-Knutsen Punched Card System 1919–1938,” Business History 51 (2009), 28–44.

128. Minutes of Assemblée Constitutive, 21 February 1931, 9 March 1931, box 1, 93DJFG-DDS02, Archives Bull; Société Egli-Bull, June 1932, box 2, 92HIST-DGE01, Archives Bull; Minutes of Réunion Conseilles d’Administration, 9 March 1931, vol. 1, box 44, 93DJFG-DDS02, Archives Bull.

129. “Rapport sur la situation financier de la Société Egli-Bull au 31 décembre 1931,” box 2, 92HIST-DGE01, Archives Bull.

130. Pierre-Eric Mounier-Kuhn, “Bull: A World-Wide Company Born in Europe,” Annals of the History of Computing, 11 (1989): 279–297, on 282.

131. Telegrams from U.S. Powers to Bull or Egli company in Zürich, 11–12 December 1931; letter from AITEC (Vieillard, Genon, Vindevoghel), Paris, to RR, New York, 15 December 1931, both in box 2.3 (Remington Rand, 1931–1960), Archives Bull.

132. Letter from AITEC (Vieillard, Genon, Vindevoghel), Paris, to RR, New York, 15 December 1931, box: 2.3 (Remington Rand, 1931–1960), Archives Bull.

133. “Rapport sur la situation financier de la Société Egli-Bull au 31 décembre 1931,” box 1, 92HIST-DGE, Archives Bull; Assemblée Générale Extraordinaire: 16 April 1932, procès verbal, box 1, 93DJFG-DDS02.

134. Assemblée Générale, 31 March 1933, box 1, 93DJFG-DDS02, Archives Bull; Assemblée Générale Extraordinaire, 25 April 1933, box 2, 93DJFG-DDS02.

135. Liste des equipments vendue (list of sold equipnment), June 1935, Liste des equipments loués (list of leased equipment), June 1935, box 2, 92HIST-DGE01, Archives Bull; note, G. Vieillard to M. Bassot, 14 May 1934; note, Bosman to G. Vieillard, 28 January 1935; note, Guerner to G. Vieillard, 26 July 1935; all box 3.1 (folder Products 1931–1946), Archives Bull.

136. P. Cailles, Aussedat, to M. Bassot, Compagnie de Machines Bull (CMB), 12 September 1934, ring-folder: Fischesannuelles 1931–1934, Archives Bull.

137. Conseils d’administration, 12 June 1935, 18 October 1935; exchange of telegrams between E. Genon in New York and the Bull board, 7–18 May 1935, box 3, 92HIST-HUR01, Archives Bull; D. Pagel’s interview with G. Vieillars, box 1, 94HIST-COM03.

138. Mounier-Kuhn, “Bull,” 284.

139. These companies do not appear to have aspired to be admitted to this society, as SAMAS did not have any production of punched-card machines in France and IBM only started theirs in 1934. René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 80: Société anonymes des machines à statistique,” 1936; René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 71: Fabrication des machines à statistique qui peuvent être utilisées par les Services du Department de la Guerre,” 1935, 4; both in folder 6, box N77, series N, Archives de l’Armée.

140. Conseil d’administration, 20 December 1931, box 1, 93DJFG-DDS02, Archives Bull.

141. Mounier-Kuhn, “Bull,” 282.

142. Conseil d’administration, 20 January 1933, box 1, 93DJFG-DDS02, Archives Bull.

143. René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 72: Fabrications de machines à statistique et situation particulière de l’industrie française en cette matière,” 11 June 1935, 31–40, 60–63, folder 6, box 8 N77, series N, Archives de l’Armée; minutes, “Résumé de l’entretien de M. Vieillard avec M. le Contrôleur Carmille, et M. Essig, Inspecteur des Finances,” 23 January 1935, and “Note pour M. Jourdain en vue de l’entretien avec M. Guinant, secrétaire Général du Ministère de la Guerre,” 24 January 1935, folder DAC I 193/51, box 92VEN08, Archives Bull.

144. René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 78: Fourniture d’un équipement mécanographique au Service de la Liquidation des Transports, 16 December 1935, 19, folder 6, box 8 N77, series N, Archives de l’Armée.

145. Liste des equipments vendue, juin 1935, Liste des equipments loués, juin 1935, box 2, 92HIST-DGE01, Archives Bull.

146. Minutes from technical conferences at Egli-Bull, 28–29 April 1931, 5 June 1931, June 13, 1931 and June 20, 1931, box 1, 93DJFG-DDS02, Archives Bull; Note de M. Vieillard à M. Bassot, Vice-Président Délégué, May 14, 1934, ring-folder, CMB. Fischesannuelles 1931–1934; Conseil d’Administration, 25 February 1935, box, 93DJFG-DDS02; note, Bosman to G. Vieillard, 28 January 1935, and note Guerner to G. Vieillard, 26 July 1935, folder, Products 1931–1946, box 3.1, Archives Bull.

147. Dossier justicatif des budgets, 1 June 1932, box 2, 92HIST-DGE01, Archives Bull.

148. Heide, “Facilitating and Restricting.”

149. Knut Andreas Knutsen, Dispositif imprimeur particulièrement applicable aux machines à tabuler pour fiches perforées, [French] Patent 41,549, filed and issued 1932; Knut Andreas Knutsen and Anders Eirikson Vethe, Printing device, [U.S.] Patent 1,971,860, filed and issued 1934; Knutsen interview 1978, 89, box 3, 92HIST-DGE07, Archives Bull.

150. Indicated in Henrik Hartzner Diaries, custody of Hartzner family, Denmark, 1 February 1931.

151. List of Bull customers, August 1935, in Archives Bull, folder DARC, 92–VEN-08, Archives Bull; F. R. Bull to Rentenanstalt, 16 March 1922, and note, Vorstellung der RA, 1973, both kindly supplied from Swiss Life; “In memoriam Prof. Dr. Emile Marchand 1890–1971,” Mitteilungen der Vereinigung schweizerischer Versicherungsmathematiker, 71 (1971): 1–8.

152. Hartzner Diaries, 28 October 1931, 26 November 1931, 30 May 1932, author’s copies; Knut Andreas Knutsen, Dispositif imprimeur particulièrement applicable aux machines à statistiques, machines à calculer ou machines à tabuler pour fiches perforées, [French] Patent 734,945, filed and issued 1932; Knut Andreas Knutsen, Printing device for statistical, calculating, and tabulating machines, [U.S.] Patent 2,046,464, filed and issued 1936; Knut Andreas Knutsen, Dispositif imprimeur particulièrement applicable aux machines à statistiques, machines à calculer ou machines à tabuler pour fiches perforées, [French] Patent 43,173E, filed 1933 and issued 1934; Knut Andreas Knutsen, Card controlled device, [U.S.] Patent 2,046,465, filed and issued 1936.

153. W. W. McDowell to F. M. Carroll, 10 July 1936, box A-22-3, IBM Archives.

154. Charles J. Bashe, Lyle R. Johnson, John H. Palmer, and Emerson W. Pugh, IBM’s Early Computers (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986), 481–482.

155. Knut Andreas Knutsen, Dispositif imprimeur, spécialement pour machines contrôlées par cartes enregistreuses, [French] Patent 795,586, filed 1935 and issued 1936; Knut Andreas Knutsen, Printing device, particularly for tabulating machines controlled by record cards or bands, [U.S.] Patent 2,175,530, filed and issued 1939; Dominique Pagel, Histoire de Compagnie des machines Bull, manuscript 1979, Archives Bull.

156. Conférence technique [seminar on technology], 28–29 April 1931, minutes, box 1, 93DJFG-DDS02, Archives Bull.

157. The Tabulating Machine Company, Perfectionnements aux enregistreuses pour machines tabulatrices, [French] Patent 677,427, filed and issued 1929, the equivalent of Clair D. Lake, Record sheet for tabulating machines, [U.S.] Patent 1,772,492, filed 1928 and issued 1939.

158. Bureau de Recrutement de Versailles to CMB, 30 May 1936, in Archives Bull, box 92VEN08, box 4, folder Ministère de la Guerre (1934–1944).

159. Cour d’Appel de Paris, Greffe Civil, no. H-1440 (23 April 1947), Compagnie Machines Bull v. Compagnies Electro Comptable, in Archives de Paris. More explicit argumentation in previous, parallel case, Cour d’Appel de Paris, Greffe Civil, no. H-1441 (23 April 1947), Compagnie Piles Wonder v. Compagnies Electro Comptable, Archives de Paris.

160. Interference in Patent Case File 1,772,492, entry 9A, RG-241, National Archives.

161. Minutes from Conférence technique, 28–29 April 1931, Archives Bull, folder Conférences technique, box 1, 93DJFG-DDS02, Archives Bull; minutes from Conseil d’administration, 15 January 1934, box 25, 93DJFG-DDS02.

162. “Rapport sur l’Atelier de Construction de la Compagnie des Machines Bull,” 12 July 1936, folder DAC I 193/51, box 1, 92VEN08, Archives Bull.

163. See previous note; Mr. Delaage interview with K. A. Knutsen, 5 November 1976, box 3, 92HIST-DGE07, Archives Bull; Dominique Pagel interview with R. Faucon, c. 1976, box 1, 94HIST-COM03.

Chapter Eight: Keeping Tabs on Society with Punched Cards

1. Public Law 74-271 (49 Stat. 620), 74th Cong., 1st sess. Background on the Social Security Act can be found in Clarke Chambers, Seedtime of Reform: American Social Service and Social Action 1918–1933 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1963); Roy Lubove, The Struggle for Social Security, 1900–1935 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968): 45–65; Theda Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992); Price V. Fishback and Shawn Everett Kantor, Prelude to the Welfare State: The Origins of Workers’ Compensation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000); Gary M. Wilton and Hugh Rockoff, History of the American Economy (Stamford, CT: Thomson Learning, 2002), 538–539. Extensive public material on the Social Security Act, its formation, amendments, and administration is available at the Social Security History page: www.ssa.gov/history/history.html

2. The Social Security Amendments of 1939 moved the start of payments of old age benefits to 1940. Public Law 76-379, 76th Cong., 1st sess., sec. 202.

3. Superseded by the Social Security Administration in 1946.

4. Public Law 74-271 (49 Stat. 620), 74th Cong., 1st sess., sec. 202, 210.

5. Historical Statistics of the United States. Colonial Times to the Present (New York: Basic Books, 1976), 347.

6. This would gradually rise to 3% in 1949. Social Security Act, 14 August 1935, Public Law 74-271 (49 Stat. 620), 74th Cong., 1st sess., sec. 202, 210, 801–804.

7. One-half of 1% of the accumulated amount up to $3,000 was paid, with decreasing percentages for larger amounts. Public Law 74-271 (49 Stat. 620), 74th Cong., 1st sess., sec. 202.

8. Olga S. Halsey, “British Old Age Pensions and Old Age Insurance” (1935); Marianne Sakmann, “Financial History of the Workers’ Invalidity, Old Age and Survivors’ Insurance of Germany” (1935); both staff reports by the Committee on Economic Security, 1934–1935, vol. 2 (Old Age Security), Social Security Administration Historical Archive, Baltimore; lecture by Frances Perkins, “The Roots of Social Security,” 23 October 1962, Social Security Administration Historical Archive; Michael A. Cronin, “Fifty Years of Operations in the Social Security Administration,” Social Security Bulletin, 48:6 (1985): 14–26, on 15.

9. “History of Division of Accounting Operation,” typescript 1950, 6–10–12, 17–18, Social Security Administration Historical Archive.

10. Public Law 74-271 (49 Stat. 620), 74th Cong., 1st sess., sec. 807, 808.

11. Lars Heide, “The Antitrust Case against IBM and Remington Rand in 1932 and U.S. Anti-trust Regulation,” unpublished manuscript.

12. Message from E. J. May to the Social Security Board regarding Account Number System, 1 June 1936, and Social Security Board Minutes, 2 June 1936, box 3, PI-183, entry 12, RG-47, National Archives, Washington DC (NA); Cronin, “Fifty Years,” 15–16; “History of Division of Accounting Operation,” 21–22, 23–26.

13. The Bureau of Internal Revenue had sixty-four collection districts throughout the United States, Alaska, and Hawaii.

14. Social Security Board Minutes, 8 June 1936, box 4, entry 12, PI-183, RG-47, NA; “History of Division of Accounting Operation,” 26–28.

15. “History of Division of Accounting Operation,” 41–43, 44–47; Cronin, “Fifty Years,” 16–17.

16. A. I. Ogus, “Great Britain,” in The Evolution of Social Insurance, 1881–1981, ed. Peter A. Köhler and Hans F. Zacher (London: Frances Pinter, 1982), 209–214; Ministry of Labour, Twenty-First Abstract of Labour Statistics of the United Kingdom (1919–1933) (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office [HMSO], 1934), 170–171.

17. Yves Saint-Jours, “France: Evolution of Social Insurance,” 93–95, 117–120, 121–122, in Peter A. Köhler and Hans F. Zacher (eds), The Evolution of Social Insurance, 1881–1981 (London: Frances Pinter, 1982); Paul Durand, La politique contemporaine de sécurité sociale (Paris: Dalloz, 1953), 32.

18. “Social Security Board: General Statement of the Problems Confronting the Records Division of the Bureau of Federal Old-Age Benefits,” 15 June 1936, box 3, PI-183, entry 12, RG-47, NA; “History of Division of Accounting Operation,” 9–10, 28–32.

19. Social Security Board Minutes, 16 September 1936, box 4, PI-183, entry 12, RG-47, NA; “History of Division of Accounting Operation,” 32–40.

20. “History of Division of Accounting Operation,” 62–63.

21. The wages were reported semiannually in 1937.

22. Internal IBM correspondence on the origin of the collator, 1946–1947; Historical Record of Card and Machine Development, 1955, 20; both in box A-25-3, International Business Machines (IBM) Archives, New York; IBM Electric Punched Card Machines Principles of Operation: Collator Type 077 (New York: IBM, 1945); Emerson W. Pugh’s interviews with Stephen W. Dunwell, 31 July 1991, no. 1, 31–36 and no. 2, 13–14, interview C176, Technical History Project, IBM Archives.

23. Historical Record of Card and Machine Development, 19, 21; “History of Division of Accounting Operation,” 80–82.

24. “Social Security Board regulation no. 1,” adopted by the Social Security Board, 15 June 1937, Social Security Administration Historical Archive; Arthur Joseph Altmeyer, The Formative Years of Social Security (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966), 58–59.

25. No substantiation was found for the possible influence of the U.S. Social Security register on the development of the French national register.

26. Euginia C. Kiesling, Arming Against Hitler: France and the Limits of Military Planning (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996), 85–91; Henry Dutailly, “L’effondrement,” in Histoire militaire de la France, ed. Guy Pedroncini, Paris: PUF, 1992), vol. 3, 382.

27. Note, Affaire recrutement-mobilisation, 8 August 1935, folder 1, box 3.11, Archives Bull, Paris; Dutailly, “L’effondrement,” 349–350.

28. Tabulating Machine Company, Perfectionnements aux enregistreuses pour machines tabulatrices, [French] Patent 677,427, filed and issued 1929, the equivalent of Clair D. Lake, Record sheet for tabulating machines,” [U.S.] Patent 1,772,492, filed 1928 and issued 1939.

29. René Carmille, “Note no. 306”; René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 105: Concernant le position de la Compagnie Bull vis-à-vis du Département de la Guerre,” 11 March 1938, 13; René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 68: Études de l’urtication de procédés mécaniques mécanographiques par les Centre de Mobilisation,” 5 February 1935, folder 6, box 8 N77, series N, Archives du Service historique de l’Armée de terre, Château de Vincennes, Paris.

30. René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 105,” 13–14; René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 108 au sujet des machines à cartes perforées et de machines à clichés service du Recrutement,” 30 June 1938, 3–4, folder 6, box 8 N77, series N, Archives Bull.

31. René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 104: Essai de construction d’un Bureau régional mécanisé de Recrutement dans la 3ème Région Militaire,” 16 February 1938; “Annexes de Rapport Particulier No. 104,” both in folder 4, box 8 N77, series N, Archives Bull.

32. René Carmille, “Rapport Particulier No. 112 concernant la fourniture de machines à clichés nécessaires à l’Atelier de Mécanographie du Bureau de Recrutement de Rouen,” 21 March 1939, folder 6, box 8 N77, series N, Archives Bull.

33. Peter Jackson, France and the Nazi Menace: Intelligence and Policy Making 1933–1939 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000); Kiesling, Arming against Hitler, 173–184; Marc Olivier Baruch, Servir l’État français (Paris: Fayard, 1997). It is noteworthy that the efforts to mechanize the French conscript administration started in 1933 when information was collected from the army in Germany. René Carmille, “Note No. 306: Concernant l’historique de l’origine des études sur la mécanisation du Service de Recrutement,” 13 June 1938, unnumbered folder, box 8 N77, series N, Archives Bull.

34. The French Armistice Army was not specified in the Armistice Agreement, but it was subsequently specified. La Délégation Française auprès de la Commission Allemande d’Armistice, vol. 1, article 4, 2 (Paris: A. Costes, 1947); André Martel, ed., Histoire militaire de la France, (Paris: PUF, 1994), vol. 4, 31.

35. Baruch, Servir l’État, 97–170.

36. Note relative au Service National des Statistiques (Services des Enquêtes Démographiques), 1944, box B 55,364, Centre des archives économiques et financières, Savigny-le-Temple; Gaston Marie Gaston Marie, “René Carmille. Son oeuvre” [obituary], Journal de la Société de statistique de Paris, 86 (1945): 145–148; Alfred Sauvy, “Statistique Générale et Service National de Statistique de 1919 à 1944,” Journal de la Société de Statistique de Paris, 1975, 40–41; Michel Volle, “Naissance de la statistique industrielle en France, 1930–1960,” in Pour une histoire de la statistique (Paris: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques [INSEE], 1977), 347–352; Henri Amouroux, Quarante millions de Pétainistes, Juin 1940–Juin 1941 (Paris: R. Laffont, 1977), 352–353.

37. Alfred Sauvy, De Paul Raynaud à Charles de Gaulle. Scènes, tableaux et souvenirs (Paris: Casterman, 1972), 135.

38. Mireille Moutardier et al., eds., Cinquante ans d’INSEE (Paris: INSEE, 1996), 26–45; letter with attachment, General Allard, to Minister of War, “Situation Militaire du Service du Recrutement et des Statistique,” 4 October 4, 1944, folder 4, box 7–P82, series P, Archives Bull.

39. “Étude de la chaîne de travail pendant la période de mechanisation, Service technique,” n.d. [before 12 June 1941], box B 55,359, Centre des Archives économiques.

40. Compatibility between IBM and Bull alphanumeric punched card standards was only enabled by the introduction of computers after the Second World War.

41. “Recensement des activités professionnels. La chaîne de travail pendant la période de mécanisation, Direction de la demographie,” 22 July 1941, box B 55,359, Centre des Archives économiques.

42. Project de carnet individual, 1 February 1941, box B 55,358, Centre des Archives économique; “Étude de la chaîne de travail”; René Carmille, La mécanographie dans les administrations, 2nd ed. (Paris: Recueil Sirey, 1942), 122–130.

43. Régences d’Avances, État français, 2 August 1943, box B 55,349, Centre des Archives économiques; Jean-Pierre Azéma, Raymond Lévy-Bruhl, and Béatrice Touchelay, Mission d’analyse historique sur le système de statistique français de 1940 à 1945 (Paris: INSEE, 1998), 15, 49.

44. Le Ministre, Secrétaire d’État à l’Economie Nationale et aux Finances, to the Interior Minister, 7 April 1941; Le Directeur Régional de la Demographie à Marseille, to Service de la Demographie, Lyon, 12 November 1941, 28 November 1941, and 3 March 1943; Direction de l’Administration de la Police, to Service National des Statistiques (SNS), 11 August 1943; all five documents in box B 55,358, Centre des Archives économiques.

45. Report, SNS Toulouse, to SNS Lyon, 7 March 1944, box 55,359, Centre des Archives économiques.

46. Note relative au Service National des Statistiques (Services des Enquêtes Démographiques), 1944, box B 55,364, Centre des Archives économiques; A. Caffot, “A propos d’un anniversaire ou de la statistique au camouflage,” Bulletin de l’AIS 25 (1955): 34–50; Azéma, Lévy-Bruhl, and Touchelay, Mission d’analyse, 44–45; Robert Carmille, Services statistiques français pendant l’occupation (Saint-Cloud: Le Cornec, 2000), 23–27. The endeavor, in 1941–1942, to reorganize the police in the “occupied zone” is a similar example; see Baruch, Servir l’État, 384–388.

47. A register of 120,000 people of special military importance was kept until the liberation of France in 1944, a number by and large within the limit of the armistice agreement; Carmille, Services statistiques français, 28.

48. Azéma, Lévy-Bruhl, and Touchelay, Mission d’analyse, 26, 29.

49. Azéma, Lévy-Bruhl, and Touchelay, Mission d’analyse, 45–46; Carmille, Services statistiques français, 61–62.

50. Carmille, Services statistiques français, 196; Jacques Adler, The Jews of Paris and the Final Solution, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), 4.

51. Donna F. Ryan, The Holocaust and the Jews of Marseille (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996), 24–25; Baruch, Servir l’État, 128–133.

52. Azéma, Lévy-Bruhl, and Touchelay, Mission d’analyse, 53.

53. Joseph Billig, Le commissariat général, 195–210; William Seltzer, “Population Statistics, the Holocaust, and the Nuremberg Trials,” Population and Development Review 24 (1998): 511–552, on 520–522; Azéma, Lévy-Bruhl, and Touchelay, Mission d’analyse, 51–55.

54. “Êtes-vous de race juive?” Bulletin individuel de recensement des activités professionnel, 1941, box 55,359, Centre des Archives économiques.

55. Azéma, Lévy-Bruhl, and Touchelay, Mission d’analyse, 19–20. Edwin Black, in IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation (New York: Crown, 2001), 580, claims that the information about people being Jewish was never punched, but he provides no valid substantiation. That information on whether people were Jewish was punched before December 1942 has been substantiated in Ministre de l’Economie Nationale et des Finances, “Note sur l’établissement et la mise à jour du bulletin individuel Activités Processionnelles,” 17 December 1942, box 55,359, Centre des Archives économiques.

56. Adler, The Jews of Paris, 7; John F. Sweets, Choices in Vichy France: The French under Nazi Occupation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 119.

57. René Carmille, “Sur le germanisme,” Revue politique et parlementaire, September–October 1939, 31–52.

58. Billig, Le commissariat général, 1957, 210–211; Azéma, Lévy-Bruhl, and Touchelay, Mission d’analyse, 53.

59. Azéma, Lévy-Bruhl, and Touchelay, Mission d’analyse, 54.

60. SNS Toulouse to SNS Lyon, 7 March 1944, box 55,359, Centre des Archives économiques.

61. The several distinct censuses and Jewish refugees in France complicate this estimate. Adler, The Jews of Paris, 6.

62. Michel Lévy, “Le numéro INSEE: De la mobilisation clandestine (1940) au projet Safari (1974),” Dossier et Recherches 86 (2000): 23–34, on 28; Seltzer “Population Statistics,” 521–523; Azéma, Lévy-Bruhl, and Touchelay, Mission d’analyse, 56; Adler, The Jews of Paris, 6.

63. Azéma, Lévy-Bruhl, and Touchelay, Mission d’analyse, 29, 34, 39, 50–51.

64. “Grundlage für eine Geschichte der deutschen Wehr- und Rüstungswirtschaft” (c. 1942), 19–20, frames 717,725–717,726, roll 5, T-77, National Archives (NA); Gregor Janssen, Das Ministerium Speer: Deutschlands Rüstung im Krieg (Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Ullstein, 1968), 13–15.

65. Minutes of the Army Lochkarten-Ausschuss meetings between 10 October and 31 December 1937; Dr. Rudelsdorff, “Übersicht über die Vorarbeiten zur Einführung des Lochkartenverfahrens für de Mob-Planung und Friedensrohstoffbewirtschaftung,” 1 October 1937; all in frames 176,421(176,486, roll 339, T-77, NA.

66. Walther Lauersen, “Organisation und Aufgaben des Maschinellen Berichtswesens des Reichsminister für Rüstung und Kriegsproduktion,” typescript, Hamburg, 5 December 1945, vol. 3, R-3/17.a, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde; Kurt Passow, “Das ‘Maschinelle Berichtswesen’ als Grundlage für die Führung im II. Weltkrieg,” Wehrtechnische Monatshefte, 62 (1965), 3–6; Hartmut Petzold, Rechnende Maschinen. Eine historische Untersuchung ihrer Herstellung und Anwendung vom Keiserreich bis zur Bundesrepublik (Düsseldorf, Germany: VDI Verlag, 1985), 246–257.

67. Meckenstock and Schüssler, “Das Lochkartenverfahren beim ‘Hebedienst für Elektrizität, Gas und Wasser’ in Frankfurt a. M.,” Hollerith Nachrichten, 61 (1936): 831–848; Fritz Abendroth, “Die Anwendung des Hollerith-Lochkartenverfahrens im Einziehungswesen Der Berliner Städtischen Wasserwerk A.G.,” Hollerith Nachrichten, 66 (1936): 918–920; Pankraz Görl, “Technisierung der Administration. Maschinelle Datenverarbeitung und die Rationalisiering der Verwaltung in Deutschland 1924–1945” (unpublished MA thesis, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, 1993), 87–90.

68. “Der Hollerith-Rechenlocher,” Hollerith Nachrichten, 80 (1938): 1137–1138; Friedrich W. Kistermann “The Way to the First Automatic Sequence-Controlled Printing Calculator: The 1935 DEHOMAG D11 Tabulator,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 17:2 (1995): 33–49, on 46.

69. H. Rottke to W. Heidinger, Neue Modelle/Alphabet-Tabelliermaschinen, 26 June 1940, and H. Rottke to W. Heidinger, D 11 A-Tabelliermaschine, 3 September 1940, both in B-95/71, Wirtschaftsarchiv Baden-Württemberg, Stutgart-Hohenheim; H. Rottke, Rundschreiben Nr. 42/6: Betrifft: Tabelliermaschine Type D 11, 26 April 1942, B-95/85, Wirtschaftsarchiv Baden-Würtemberg; Fellinger, Niederschrift über die Entwicklung der Beziehungen zwischen der Dienststelle M.B …. und der Dehomag, 8 October 1943, 8; WillyHeidinger, Aktennotiz betr. MB-Dienststelle…, 2 March 1944; both in R-87/6249, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde; Fellinger, International Business Machines Corporation, Teilbericht no. 6, 10 August, R-87/6250, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

70. Note, Von der Wehrmacht übernommene Maschine amerikanischen Ursprungs ohne bisher erteilte Devisengenehmigung (Equiment of U.S. origin assumed by German military 11 October 1939, B-95/120, Wirtschaftsarchiv Baden-Württemberg.

71. Richard J. Overy, War and Economy in the Third Reich (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), 242.

72. Lauersen, “Organisation und Aufgaben,” 45–51; Passow, “Das ‘Maschinelle Berichtswesen,’” 136.

73. Rüstungsinspektion des Wehrkreises XVII (German armament inspection in Vienna), to Oberkommando der WehrmachtUnterteilung der Personalmeldung nach Gerätegruppe, 12 August 1941, frame 1,633,318, roll 470, T-77, NA; Lauersen, “Organisation und Aufgaben,” 2, 20–21; Passow, “Das ‘Maschinelle Berichtswesen,’” 136–138.

74. Janssen, Das Ministerium Speer, 33, 38–39.

75. Albert Speer, Erinnerungen (Berlin: Propyläen Verlag, 1969), 233; Overy, War and Economy, 354–355.

76. Overy, War and Economy, 355–356; Joachim Fest, Speer. Eine Biographie (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Tachenbuch Verlag, 2001), 182–189.

77. Speer, Erinnerungen, 223–224; Janssen, Das Ministerium Speer, 42–48, 56–57.

78. Passow, “Das ‘Maschinelle Berichtswesen,’” 10; Janssen, Das Ministerium Speer, 52.

79. Tables, Zahl vorhandenen Lochkartenmaschinen, October 1944 and Übersicht des Fachpersonals, October 1944, R-3/1294, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde; Speer, Erinnerungen, 224.

80. Rolf Wagenführ, Die deutsche Industrie im Kriege 1939–1945 (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1954), 139.

81. Formular AG 310 Beschäftigtenmeldung, 20 August 1942; Formular AG 311: Industriebericht/Umsatz; numeric wiring scheme (D-11) for processing AG 310, no date; Bearbeitungsplan für Beschäftigungsmeldung und Industriebericht, 10 November 1942; wiring scheme for an alphanumeric IBM 405 tabulator; proposal for report from an unidentified company, no date, 39; all five in R-3/25, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde; the text of a lecture by an unidentified individual; Planung der Beschäftigten Meldung in den Betrieben der Rüstungswirtschaft, 29 September 1942; vol. 1, R-3/1086, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

Circular, Reichsminister für Bewaffnung und Munition für die deutschen Betriebsführer, Einführung zum Beschäftigtenmeldebogen, 28 July 1942; Notiz für die Presse über die am 14. August 1942 neu durchführende Beschäftigtenmeldung mit Industriebericht, 27 July 1942; both in frames 1,633,473–1,633,487, roll 470, T-77, NA.

82. Wagenführ, Die deutsche Industrie, 66–67.

83. Lauersen, “Organisation und Aufgaben,” 143.

84. The construction of an alphanumeric punched card register of ill soldiers appears to date back to 1941. Lauersen, “Organisation und Aufgaben,” 40; Passow, “Das ‘Maschinelle Berichtswesen,’” 107–109; Götz Aly and Karl Heinz Roth, Die restlose Erfassung. Volkszählen, Identifizieren, Aussondern im Nationalsozialismus (Berlin: Rotbuch Verlag, 1984), 132. Their allusion to earlier use of the German personal number is not substantiated.

85. Passow, “Das ‘Maschinelle Berichtswesen,’” 98–101.

86. Note, W. Heidinger, Betr.: MB-Diensstelle bzw. Beirat, 2 March 1944; report, Fellinger to Reichskommissar (Fellinger was Dehomag’s custodian, i.e., a German-government-appointed president), Betrifft: Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft m.b.H., 9 August 1944; both in vol. 2, R-87/6249; Lauersen, “Organisation und Aufgaben,” 44–45.

87. Aktenvermerk Betr. Durchführung der Personaleinzelerfassung bei den Gühring-Werken, Waldeburg, 29 November 1944, vol. 2, R-3/1293, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde; Lauersen, “Organisation und Aufgaben,” 32–34; Aly and Roth, Die restlose Erfassung, 131–132.

88. Report, “Die Reichspersonalkartei, MB,” 1 August 1944; report, Herbst, “Die Personaleinzelerfassung, Ansbach,” 29 September 1944; “Bericht über die Personaleinzelerfassung in Ansbach,” 2 November 1944; “Aktenvermerk betr. Personaleizelerfassung,” 16 November 1944; V. Nullau, “Mitteilung betrifft: Einführung der Personal-Hollerith-Kartei,” 16 January 1945; all in vol. 2, R-3/1293, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde; Lauersen, “Organization und Aufgaben,” 33–36; Passow, “Das ‘Maschinelle Berichtswesen,’” 143–144; Aly and Roth, Die restlose Erfassung, 133–140.

89. T. G. Belden and M. R Belden, The Lengthening Shadow: The Life of Thomas J. Watson (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1962), 194–195; Black, IBM and the Holocaust, 132–134.

90. Liste der z.Zt. in Deutschland befindlichen Maschinen der Compagnie Electro-Comptable, 15 January 1944, vol.1, R-3/1154, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

91. Group of leasing contracts of the German trustees in Brussels and Amsterdam of the International Business Machines Corporation, New York, with the Maschinelles Berichtwesen concerning various types of machines, 1942, frames 1,053,937–1,054,002, roll 8, T-73, National Archives; Vertrag vom 23.6.1944 zwischen M.B. [Maschinelles Berichtwesen] Berlin und Compagnie Electro Comptable, vol. 1, R-3/1154, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde; note, An Firmen … an geliehene bzw. abgegebene CEC [Compagnie Electro Comptable]). Maschinen. 26.6.1944, vol.2, R-3/1274, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

Historians Götz Aly and Karl Heinz Roth accuse IBM of having leased punched-card machines to German customers after the United States entered into the war. The contract they cite is one of the contracts mentioned above. Aly and Roth, Die restlose Erfassung, 123–124. The contract in frames 1,003,937–1,003,938, roll 8, T-77, National Archives. It is not signed by IBM, but by a German custodian.

92. Belden and Belden, The Lengthening Shadow, 195–196, 207.

93. W. Heidinger, Aktennotiz Betr. Watson, 23 August 1940; T. J. Watson, to W. Heidinger, 2 October 1941 (transmitted by the Foreign Service of the U.S.); Rottke, Bericht über die Besprechung zwischen Herrn Major Passow … Betrifft: Watson, 14 December 1940; note, W. Heidinger, Betrifft. Watson, 4 February 1941; Westerholt, Bericht über eine Besprechung beim OKH, Major Passow, 4.3.41 …; W. Heidinger, Bericht des Aufsichtsrat, Betrifft Verdeutschung der Dehomag, 12 November 1941; all in B-95/39, Wirtschaftsarchiv Baden-Württemberg; Black, IBM and the Holocaust, 218–258, 270–273, 277–291.

94. Hartmut Petzold, Moderne Rechenkünstler. Die Industrialisierung der Rechentechnik in Deutschland (Munich: Verlag C. H. Beck, 1992), 92–93, 96–100.

95. Wanderer-Werke vorm. Winklhofer & Jaenicke A.-G. in Schönau b. Chemnitz, Verbindung einer Rechenmaschine mit einer Kartenlochmaschine, [German] Patent 576,616, filed 1929 and issued 1933; Michael Schneider, Unternehmensstrategien zwischen Weltwirtschaftskrise und Kriegswirtschaft: Chemnitzer Maschinenbauunternehmen während der NS-Zeit 1933–1945 (Essen, Germany: Klatext, 2005), 288–292; Michael Schneider, “Business Decision Making in National Socialist Germany: Machine Tools, Business Machines, and Punch Cards at the Wanderer-Werke AG,” Enterprise & Society 3 (2002): 396–428, on 414–417.

96. Voigt, Aktennotiz, 21 May 1940; OKH to Siemens, Betr.: Patentanmeldungen des Herrn Obering. Voigt, 7 December 1940; letter, OKH to Siemens, 12 June 1941; all in 21/Lg889, Siemens Archiv.

97. Organizational diagram dated 16 November 1940, R3/541, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

98. Schneider, Unternehmensstrategien, 293–299; Schneider, “Business Decision Making,” 417–420. A similar contract was concluded on the Dutch Kamatec punched card machines to no avail. Schneider, “Business Decision Making,” 273–277, 370–371.

99. Letter, Fellinger, to Reichskommissar, Betrifft deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft m.b.H, 10 October 1943; report, Fellinger, International Business Machines Corporation. Anlage … betreffen Dienststelle Maschinelles Berichtwesen und Wanderer-Werke A.G., 25 July 1945; both in vol. 2, R-87/6250, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde; Schneider, Unternehmensstrategien, 305–308; Schneider, “Business Decision Making,” 420–421.

100. Schneider, Unternehmensstrategien, 309–316, 403–405.

101. Note, Voigt to P. Storch, Betr.: Entwicklungsarbeit auf dem Gebiete der Lochkarten-Maschinen, 9 September 1941, 21/Lg889, Siemens Archiv; Report, Fellinger, International Business Machines Corporation. Anlage … betreffend Dienststelle Maschinelles Berichtwesen und Wanderer-Werke A.G., 25 July 1945, vol. 2, R-87/6250, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde; Schneider, Unternehmensstrategien, 312–313. Schneider does not provide reasons for his assessment of divergent strategies in the two contracts.

102. Schneider, Unternehmensstrategien, 404–409, 424–426.

103. Note, W. Heidinger, Konkurrenz Wanderer, Bull resp. MBD und JBM-Vertrag, 14 June 1944, and note, W. Heidinger, Einführer von Konkurrenzmaschinen, 14 June 1944, both in B-95/102, Wirtschaftsarchiv Baden-Württemberg; report, Fellinger, International Business Machines Corporation, Anlage … betreffend Dienststelle Maschinelles Berichtwesen und Wanderer-Werke AG., 25 July 1945; both in vol. 2, R-87/6250, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde; Schneider, Unternehmensstrategien, 415–424.

104. The incomplete Maschinelle Berichtwesen archives contains the article “‘Wocci’ Knows All about the Army,” Daily Herald, 23 November 1944, on a British draft service punched card register, vol. 2, Akten Nr.921/45, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

105. Passow, “Das ‘Maschinelle Berichtswesen,’” 65, 103, 105, 106.

106. W. Heidinger, Betrifft Beirat, 18 June 1943; Fellinger, Niederschrift über die Entwicklung der Beziehungen zwischen der Dienststelle M.B. des Reichsministers für Rüstung und Kriegsproduktion und der Dehomag, 8 October 1943; W. Heidinger, Aktennotiz betr.: MB-Dienststelle bzw. Beirat, 2 March 1944; report, Fellinger, International Business Machines Corporation. Anlage … betreffend Dienststelle Maschinelles Berichtwesen und Wanderer-Werke A.G., 25 July 1945; all in vol. 2, Akten Nr. 921/45, R-87/6249, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

107. Report, Fellinger to Reischskomissar, Betrifft: Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft m.b.H., 24 November 1943; report, Fellinger, International Business Machines Corporation, Teilbericht Nr. 6: Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft m.b.H., 10 August 1945; both in in vol.2, Akten Nr. 921/45, R-87/6249, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

108. Schneider, Unternehmensstrategien, 409–415; Schneider, “Business Decision Making,” 423–424.

109. Reports, Fellinger, to Reischskomissar, Betrifft: Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft m.b.H., 11 October 1944 and 24 November 1943; Fellinger, International Business machines Corporation, Teilbericht 5: Compagnie Electro-Comptable, Paris, 30 July 1945; Teilbericht Nr. 6: Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft m.b.H., 10 August 1945, Anlage I zum teilbericht 6 betreffend Dienststelle Maschinelles Berichtwesen and Wandere-Werke A.G., 25 July 1945; all in vol.2, Akten Nr. 921/45, R-87/6249, Bundesarchiv, Berlin-Lichterfelde.

110. Lauersen, “Organization und Aufgaben,” 36.

111. Speer, Erinnerungen, 325–328, 340–356; Fest, Speer, 246–251, 263–298.

112. Aly and Roth, Die restlose Erfassung and Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust, did not provide any new insight on the alleged Dehomag complicity in the Holocaust.

113. Ludwig Hümmer, “Die Aufbereitung der Volks- und Betriebszählung 1933 im Hollerith-Lochkartenverfahren,” Hollerith Nachrichten, 28 (1933): 343–355; Friedrich Burgdörfer, “Die Volks-, Berufs- und Betriebszählung 1933,” Allgemeine statistische Archiv, 23 (1933/34): 145–171; [Statistische Reichsamt] “Erhebung- und Bearbeitungsplan der Volks, Berufs- und Betriebszählung 1933,” Statistik des Deutschen Reichs 467 (1939): 5–11; Aly and Roth, Die restlose Erfassung, 20–21; Friedrich W. Kistermann, “Locating the Victims: The Nonrole of Punched Card Technology and Census Work,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 19 (1997), 31–45, on 38.

114. Roderich Plate, “Die erste Großdeutsche Volks-, Berufs- und Betriebszählung 1939,” Allgemeines Statistische Archiv, 28 (1938/39): 421–436; Bieler, “Lochkartenmaschinen im Dienste der Reichsstatistik,” Allgemeines Statistische Archiv, 28 (1939), 94–95; “Die Juden und jüdische Mischlinge im Deutschen Reich,” Wirtschaft und Statistik, 20:5/6 (1940), 84–87; “Volks- Berufs und Betriebszählung vom 17. Mai 1939,” Statistik des Deutschen Reiches, 552:1 (1943); David Martin Luebke and Sybil Milton, “Locating the Victim: An Overview of Census-Taking, Tabulation Technology, and Persecution in Nazi Germany,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 16:3 (1994): 25–39, on 28, 30–31; Kistermann, “Locating the Victims,” 38–40.

No punched card from the processing of this census was actually located, but there was also no indication of a shift from punched cards as a tool for processing statistics to a register tool before 1942.

115. Luebke and Milton, “Locating the Victim,” 25–39.

116. Martin Brozat, Der Staat Hitlers (Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1969), 155, 425; Luebke and Milton, “Locating the Victim,” 26, 32.

117. Erich Liebermann von Sonnenberg and Arthur Kääb, eds., Die Reichsmeldeordnung: Handausgabe mit Erläuterungen (Munich: J. Jehle, 1942), 1–19, 104–130, first edition in 1938; Aly and Roth, Die restlose Erfassung, 39–43; Luebke and Milton, “Locating the Victim,” 28–29.

118. Erich Liebermann von Sonnenberg and Arthur Kääb, Die Volkskartei: Ein Handbuch (Munich: J. Jehle, 1940), 136–141.

119. Luebke and Milton, “Locating the Victim,” 29.

120. Germany reintroduced conscription in 1935.

121. “Verordnung über die Errichtung einer Volkskartei vom 21. April 1939,” Reichsgesetzblatt, 1939, vol. 1, 823; von Sonnenberg and Kääb, Die Volkskartei; Klaus Heinicken, “Die Volkskartei,” Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv 31 (1941–42): 39–44; Aly and Roth, Die restlose Erfassung, 44–50; Luebke and Milton, “Locating the Victim,” 31.

122. Luebke and Milton, “Locating the Victim,” 31.

123. Luebke and Milton, “Locating the Victim,” 32–34.

124. Historical Record of Card and Machine Development (New York: IBM, 1955), IBM Archives.

125. J. F. Brennan, The IBM Watson Laboratory of Columbia University: A History (New York: IBM, 1971), 3–5; Wallace John Eckert, Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation (New York: Columbia University, 1940), 23–24.

126. George Walter Baehne, ed., Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities (New York: Columbia University Press, 1935), 177–436; Eckert, Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation; Leslie John Comrie, “The Applications of Commercial Calculating Machines to Scientific Computation,” Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation 2 (1946): 157–158.

127. Herman H. Goldstine, The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972); Petzold, Moderne Rechenkünstler; Martin Campbell-Kelly and William Asprey, Computer: A History of the Information Machine (New York: Basic Books, 1996).

128. Charles J. Bashe, Lyle R. Johnson, John H. Palmer, and Emerson W. Pugh, IBM’s Early Computers (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986); Martin Campbell-Kelly, ICL: A Business and Technical History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989); JoAnne Yates, “Co-evolution of Information-Processing Technology and Use: Interaction Between the Life Insurance and Tabulating Industries,” Business History Review 67 (1993): 1–51; Lars Heide, Hulkort- og edb i Danmark, 1911–1970 (Århus, Denmark: Systime 1996).

129. Leslie John Comrie, “The Application of the Hollerith Tabulating Machine to Brown’s Tables of the Moon,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 92 (1933): 694–707; Leslie John Comrie, “Computing of the Nautical Almanac,” The Nautical Magazine 130 (1933): 44–48.

130. Bashe, Johnson, Palmer, and Pugh, IBM’s Early Computers, 459–460; Campbell-Kelly, ICL, 193–194.

Conclusion

1. Wiebe E. Bijker, Of Bicycles, Bakelites, and Bulbs (Cambridge: MA: MIT Press, 1995), 122–126, 143, 190–196, 260–267.

2. For example, Thomas P. Hughes, Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983); Hans-Liudger Dienel, Ingenieure zwischen Hochschule und Industrie: Kältetechnik in Deutschland und Amerika, 1870–1930, (Göttingen, Germany: Hoechks & Rupprecht, 1995); Eda Kranakis, Constructing a Bridge: An Exploration of Engineering Culture, Design, and Research in Nineteenth-Century France and America (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997).

3. Mikael Hård and Andreas Knie, “The Grammar of Technology: German and French Diesel Engineering, 1920–1949,” Technology and Culture 40 (1999), 26–46. Similarly, historian Matthias Heymann only managed to uncover elements of national style in his article “Signs of Hubris: The Shaping of Wind Technology Styles in Germany, Denmark, and the United States, 1940–1990,” Technology and Culture 39 (1998), 641–670.

4. Hughes, Networks of Power.

5. Russia had its first general census in 1897. The next census was in 1926.

6. David E. Nye, American Technological Sublime (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994).

7. Alfred D. Chandler, Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990).

8. Maurice Lévy-Leboyer, “The Large Corporation in Modern France,” Managerial Hierarchies: Comparative Perspectives on the Rise of the Modern Industrial Enterprise, ed. Alfred J. Chandler and Herman Daems (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980), 117–160, on 118–119.

9. For example, Chandler, Scale and Scope; Geoffrey Jones, “Great Britain: Big Business, Management, and Competitiveness in Twentieth-Century Britain,” Big Business and the Wealth of Nations, ed., A. D. Chandler et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 102–138.

Additional Information

ISBN
9780801898723
Related ISBN
9780801891434
MARC Record
OCLC
647917303
Pages
279-350
Launched on MUSE
2012-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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