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Notes introduction: reimagining the audience 1 Marina Abramovi¢, ‘‘Body Art,’’ 30. 2 Peter Plagens, ‘‘He Got Shot—for His Art.’’ 3 Acconci made early forays into performance art in the late 1960s, as did Abramovi¢ (in 1969), but these are artists who emerged as performance artists in the 1970s, which might be seen as a kind of heyday for experimental and confrontational performance art. I am also interested in art made at a time with a fully developed protest culture, following the Civil Rights Movement, well into anti-Vietnam War demonstrations and taking place alongside the emergent Gay Rights and Women’s Lib movements . There are important precursors, of course, perhaps centrally Yoko Ono, whose Cut Piece, which she performed four times between 1964 and 1966, provides a model for several works discussed here, especially Abramovi ¢’s Rhythm 0 (1974), and also Carolee Schneemann. The best discussion of Cut Piece is Julia Bryan-Wilson, ‘‘Remembering Yoko Ono’s Cut Piece.’’ 4 Hal Foster, ‘‘Postmodernism in Parallax.’’ Foster writes: ‘‘our consciousness of a period not only comes after the fact, it is also always in parallax. (Postmodernism, in short, is like sex[uality]: it comes too early or too late),’’ 6. 5 Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. 6 Ibid., 27. 7 Ibid., 28, where Habermas also observes that this intimate domain ‘‘was the source of privateness in the modern sense of a saturated and free interiority.’’ 8 In relation to feminism, see Carol Pateman, The Sexual Contract, and in relation to the proletarian public sphere, see Oskar Negt and Alexander Kluge, Public Sphere and Experience. 9 Habermas, Structural Transformation, 161. 10 Terry Eagleton, The Function of Criticism, 80. 11 In that context it may be seen as an attempt to wrest any residual democratic potential from the even grimmer media critique of Adorno and Horkheimer’s Dialectic of Enlightenment. 152 ............ n o t e s t o i n t r o d u c t i o n 12 Robert Morris, ‘‘Notes on Sculpture, Parts I and II,’’ 231. 13 Ibid., 232. 14 See McLuhan’s earlier book, The Gutenberg Galaxy. 15 Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media, 3. 16 Habermas, Structural Transformation, 56, emphasis added (in the original, this entire passage is italicized). 17 See for instance Iris Marion Young, ‘‘The Ideal of Community and the Politics of Di√erence,’’ 300–324. 18 See Giorgio Agamben, The Coming Community, and Jean-Luc Nancy, The Inoperative Community. 19 Agamben, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, 8. 20 Key instances include Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject; Kate Linker, Vito Acconci; Kathy O’Dell, Contract with the Skin: Masochism, Performance Art and the 1970s; Peggy Phelan, Unmarked: The Politics of Performance. 21 For performance against modernism, see Jones, Body Art; for the value of witnessing, see Phelan, Unmarked. 22 Mary Kelly, ‘‘Re-Viewing Modernist Criticism.’’ 23 Jones, Body Art, 31. 24 Jones, Body Art, 18; Linker, Vito Acconci, 46. 25 Linker, Vito Acconci, 46, and see Jones, Body Art, 103, and Robyn Brentano, ‘‘Outside the Frame: Performance, Art, and Life,’’ and Kristine Stiles, ‘‘Art and Its Objects.’’ 26 Claim took place on 10 September 1971, the events at Attica between 9 and 13 September (the New York Times of 10 September reported on the inmates’ hostage-taking), though Acconci was unaware of this when I interviewed him in April 1997. 27 This was certainly evident to Peter Plagens in the same time period in his review of Burden’s work, ‘‘He Got Shot—for His Art,’’ where he implied that Burden was exploiting the experience of soldiers in Vietnam. 28 Jon Bewley, ‘‘Chris Burden in Conversation with Jon Bewley,’’ 17. 29 Acconci, ‘‘Performance after the Fact,’’ 29. 30 Frazer Ward, ‘‘The Space around the Corner’’ 74. 31 See Hal Foster, ‘‘The Crux of Minimalism,’’ for a brief summary, 43–44 (the principal qualification is a feminist critique of the abstraction of minimalism’s phenomenological subject). 32 Conversation with the author, ca. 1999, confirmed via email, 5 February 2008. 33 Author’s notes, conversation between Chris Burden and David Ross, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 8 April 1997. 153 ............ n o t e s t o i n t r o d u c t i o n 34 Hans Ulrich Obrist, ‘‘Talking with Marina Abramovi¢, Riding on the Bullet Train to Kitakyushu, Somewhere in Japan,’’ 42. 35 Ibid., 42–43; see also Liz Kotz, ‘‘Post-Cagean Aesthetics and the Event Score.’’ 36...


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