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>> 147 Notes Chapter 1 1. For examples of such images, go to, www.,, or In fact, the image found at of a twelve-year-old boy soldier can be seen on multiple sites and campaign posters, including the Children and War: Impact Project at the University of Alberta. 2. Malinda Smith, Beyond the African Tragedy (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006). 3. I develop this concept and discuss its theoretical foundations later in this chapter. 4. For example, see former British prime minister Tony Blair’s speech from October 2, 2001, to the Labour Party annual conference, in which he declared, “The starving , the wretched, the dispossessed, the ignorant, those living in want and squalor from the deserts of Northern Africa to the slums of Gaza, to the mountain ranges of Afghanistan: they too are our cause.” 5. Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs are an example of this. Similar models of this program were used by the Untied Nations in Mozambique, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. 6. Mark Duffield, Global Governance and the New Wars: The Merging of Development and Security (New York: Zed Books, 2001); Mark Duffield, “Social Reconstruction and the Radicalization of Development: Aid as a Relation of Global Liberal Governance,” Development and Change 33, no. 5 (2002): 1049–1071. 7. Duffield, Global Governance and the New Wars, 2. 8. Ibid., 16. 9. Ibid., 11. 10. Ibid., 88. 11. Shadd Maruna and Russ Immarigeon, eds., After Crime and Punishment: Pathways to Offender Reintegration (Portland. OR: Willan, 2004), 6. 12. Ibid., 5. 13. Ibid. 14. Isobel McConnan and Sarah Uppard, Children Not Soldiers: Guidelines for Working with Child Soldiers and Children Associated with Fighting Forces (Save the Children), htm. 148 > 149 Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda, ed. Richard Jackson, Marie Breen Smyth, and Jeroen Gunning (New York: Routledge, 2009), 178–193. 28. Denov, “Girls in Fighting Forces.” 29. Rachel Brett, “Girl Soldiers: Challenging the Assumptions” (Quaker United Nations Office),; Yvonne Keairns, “The Voices of Girl Child Soldiers” (Quaker United Nations Office, October 2002), 30. Tsjeard Bouta, “Gender and Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration: Building Blocs for Dutch Policy” (Conflict Research Unit, Netherlands Institute of International Relations, March 2005), 31. McKay and Mazurana, Where Are the Girls?; Dyan Mazurana and Khristopher Carlson, From Combat to Community; Women and Girls of Sierra Leone (Cambridge , MA: Women Waging Peace, 2004); Rachel Brett, “Girl Soldiers: Denial of Rights and Responsibilities,” Refugee Survey Quarterly 23, no. 2 (2004): 30–37. 32. Specifically, see Christine Sylvester, “Development Studies and Postcolonial Studies: Disparate Tales of the ‘Third World,’” Third World Quarterly 20, no. 4 (1999): 703–721; Laura Sjoberg and Caron E. Gentry, Mothers, Monsters, Whores: Women’s Violence in Global Politics (London: Zed Books, 2007); Cindy D. Ness, Female Terrorism and Militancy: Agency, Utility, and Organization (New York: Routledge, 2008). 33. Edward W. Said, Orientalism (New York: Vintage, 1979). 34. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, “Can the Subaltern Speak?” in Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, ed. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg (New York: Grossberg Books, 1988), 271–313. 35. Ibid., 306. 36. Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality: An Introduction (New York: Random House, 1978). 37. Ibid., 178, 154. 38. Ibid., 25–26. 39. Ibid., 108, 37. 40. Ibid., 111. 41. Jacques Donzelot, The Policing of Families (London: Hutchinson, 1979), xx. 42. Ibid., 69. 43. Ibid., 58. 44. Fiona Fox, “New Humanitarianism: Does It Provide a Moral Banner for the 21st Century?” Disasters 25, no. 4 (2001): 275. 45. Gilles Deleuze, “Foreword,” in The Policing of Families (London: Hutchinson, 1979), xvi. 46. Fox, “New Humanitarianism,” 284. 47. Jacqueline Stevens, Reproducing the State (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), 210. 48. Ibid., 22. 49. Ibid., 218. 150 > 151 3. Several useful and insightful texts on Sierra Leone’s civil conflict include John Hirsh’s Sierra Leone: Diamonds and the Struggle for Democracy (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2001); Ibrahim Abdullah’s Between Democracy and Terror: The Sierra Leone Civil War (Oxford: Council for Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2004); and David Keen’s Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone (New York: Palgrave, 2005). Perhaps the most...


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