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Glossary Most of these terms are used in at least several places in the book. Omitted are terms used in only one place and defined in that location. Definitions of some general terms are modified to reflect their application to zooplankton or usage in this book. Actinopods (=axopods). Thin cytoplasmic projections, or rods, stiffened with microtubules that radiate outward from radiolarian, acantharian, and heliozoan cells. Anoxia. Absence of dissolved oxygen. Apical. At the tip, terminal. Autotrophic. Photosynthetic; using sunlight to convert inorganic carbon into organic material or “food.” Benthic. Found on the bottom or in the sediments. Benthos. Flora and fauna living on or in the bottom. Binary fission. A form of asexual reproduction via cell division seen in some protozoa and phytoplankton, resulting in two separate individuals. Bottom-up control. Indicates that primary (plant) productivity is the dominant influence in food web dynamics and structure. Brackish. Waters with salinities between 0.5 and 30 psu. Brown tide. A bloom of specific phytoplankton species with a brownish pigment that discolors the water. Carapace. Shieldlike skeletal cover over the front section of decapod and shrimplike crustaceans, often covering the entire head and thorax. Chaetae. Bristles (usually of chitin) found in annelids and previously widely referred to as setae. They are conspicuous on the parapodia of polychaetes and are embedded in the integument of oligochaetes. Chitin. A tough structural polysaccharide found in many animal phyla. Chitin is a major component of the skeletons of arthropods, the beaks of cephalopods, and internal structures in many other groups. Ciliary-mucoid feeding. A common type of suspension feeding in which food particles are caught in sticky mucus and brought to the mouth via cilia; particularly well suited to catching minute particles. Cladistics. A particular method used in classifying organisms that uses multiple morphological characteristics to determine evolutionary relationships. Copepodid (copepodite). A postnaupliar stage in copepod development that bears a general resemblance to the adult but has fewer appendages and/or segments. 384 GLOSSARY Coriolis “force.” The apparent deflection of winds and water currents to the right in the Northern Hemisphere caused by the earth’s rotation. Dactylozoids. Specialized polyps (zooids) on colonial hydrozoans heavily armed with cells containing stinging nematocysts and used for defense and prey capture. Demersal eggs. Eggs that typically occur near bottom or attached to the bottom. Demersal zooplankton. Zooplankton (mostly crustaceans) associated with the bottom that undergo periodic excursions into the water column. Detritus. Small bits of organic material and associated microorganisms; a food source for suspension feeders. Diel. Occurring over a 24-hour period that often covers a day and adjoining night. DOC. Dissolved organic carbon. Ekman circulation, or Ekman spiral. Progressive deflection of deeper-ocean currents to the right. A special application of Coriolis force. Epibenthic plankton [=Suprabenthic =hyperbenthic]. Animals (primarily crustaceans ) occupying the deepest portion of the water column; some have a direct association with the bottom. Epibiont. An organism that lives on another organism. Epitoke. A planktonic reproductive form of polychaete worms primarily in the Families Nereidae and Syllidae. Epitokes arise through a metamorphosis of benthic worms to produce planktonic forms with enlarged parapodia for swimming. The posterior of the worms fills with either eggs or sperm. Some authorities favor reserving the term epitoke for the posterior of the reproductive worm in contrast to the anterior part of the worm, the atoke. Estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM). A region of high turbidity sometimes found in estuaries. Tides pushing salinity upriver beneath the outflowing river water produce turbulence, resulting in resuspension of sediment and particulate organic material in upper reaches of estuaries near the freshwater–saltwater interface. The ETM can be an important nursery area for shad, striped bass, and white perch. Euhaline. High-salinity waters, typically 30–35 psu, and the animals that occur in these areas. Euryhaline. A wide range of salinities and organisms with a broad salinity tolerance. Eutrophication. An excess of nutrients that often results in algal blooms and sometimes low-dissolved oxygen levels on the bottom due to algal decomposition. Filter feeding. See suspension feeding. First crab stage. The first truly crablike stage in crab development is usually the product of a metamorphic molt from the megalops stage. Gastrozooids. Specialized feeding polyps (zooids) on colonial hydrozoans. Gastrozooids typically have tentacles and a mouth. Girdle. In dinoflagellates, a transverse groove containing a flagellum. Gonozooids. Specialized reproductive polyps (zooids) on colonial hydrozoans that produce medusae by budding. They lack mouths or tentacles. HAB (harmful algal bloom). A bloom of phytoplankton associated with toxic or other harmful...


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