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LESS COMMON CILIATED INVERTEBRATE LARVAE Many benthic invertebrate groups produce ciliated larvae that are minor constituents of the plankton. Although uncommon, they are interesting creatures and worthy of observation when alive. Larvae of Phoronida, Brachiopoda, Echiura, Entoprocta, and Sipunculida are rare in the nearshore plankton of our geographic range and are not treated here. Identification beyond the phylum level is rarely feasible for the groups covered below. Pilidium larva of ribbon worms (nemertea) Ribbon worms (nemerteans) produce two types of ciliated planktonic larvae: an elongated wormlike larva and the helmet-shaped pilidium larva. Both larvae feed on small phytoplankton . Ribbon worm larvae are widespread but generally rare. Reference. Riser 1974. Müller’s larva of flatworms (platyhelminthes) The most common larva of the nonparasitic flatworms is the somewhat variable Müller’s larva. Few, if any, feed during their several-day to several-week planktonic stage. Müller’s larvae are widespread but uncommon. The specialized planktonic stages of parasitic flukes (trematodes) and tapeworms (cestodes) are seldom recognized in plankton samples. References. Henley 1974; Ruppert 1978. Tornaria larva of acorn worms (hemichordata) With an apical ciliary tuft and a band of cilia encircling the body, the tornaria resembles a mollusc or polychaete trochophore. The posterior position of this band (opposite end from the apical tuft) is diagnostic. Known as the telotroch, this band provides propulsion while the more anterior looping band of cilia is used for feeding. Tornaria development has been intensively studied to provide insights into chordate origins. Reference. Strathmann and Bonar 1976. Cyphonautes larva of ectoprocts (bryozoa) Cyphonautes are generally uncommon but not rare. The flattened and distinctive shape of the paired shells separates the cyphonautes from other ciliated forms in the plankton. Cyphonautes larvae are good swimmers, using a corona of cilia to provide currents for propulsion and feeding. Reported foods include phytoplankton and tintinnids. Cyphonautes may be in the plankton for a month or more before settlement. Some ectoprocts (bryozoans ) release nonfeeding pseudocyphonautes or coronate larvae that are only in the plankton a few hours. References. Burgess et al. 2009; Maki et al. 1989; McEdward and Strathmann 1987; Ryland 1976; Strathmann and McEdward 1986; Wendt 1998. SUGGESTED READING Also see invertebrate zoology texts for general information. Christy, J. H., Stancyk, S. E. 1982. Timing of larval production and flux of invertebrate larvae in a well-mixed estuary. In: Kennedy, V. S., ed. Estuarine Comparisons. Academic Press, New York, 489–503. Young, C. M., ed.; Rice, M.E., Sewell, M., assoc. eds. 2001. Atlas of Marine Invertebrate Larvae. Academic Press, New York. 656 pp. LESS COMMON CILIATED INVERTEBRATE LARVAE 301 pilidium cyphonautes tornaria 100 µm 1 mm 100 µm 100 µm uller's larva M¨ ...


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