In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

AMPHIPODS, ISOPODS, TANAIDACEANS, AND CUMACEANS Amphipods, cumaceans, tanaidaceans, and isopods are primarily benthic or epibenthic, but many species make excursions into the water column, especially at night. Like the mysid crustaceans, amphipods, isopods, tanaidaceans, and cumaceans brood their young in a ventral brood pouch, or marsupium, made of thin overlapping plates. With the exception of some aberrant parasitic members of this group of crustaceans, there are no planktonic larval stages. Typically, young emerge from the brood pouch looking much like the adults. Basic differences in the morphology and biology of these peracarid orders are given next with additional details in the identification notes for individual taxa. Amphipods are laterally compressed crustaceans without carapaces. Of the roughly 6,000 species, those occurring in plankton collections usually belong to one of three distinctive groups. As the name “amphipod” implies, they have several different kinds of appendages , including some with pincers. They typically lie on their sides in sample dishes. They are important sources of food for many coastal and estuarine fishes. Gammaridean amphipods are among the most diverse and abundant benthic animals in virtually all brackish and marine habitats. Some are rapid swimmers, whereas others are closely associated with the bottom or live in tubes. Of the many gammarid species, a few make periodic nocturnal sojourns into the water column, and many others may be swept into the plankton by strong currents in shallow areas. Gammarideans are commonly reported in the plankton, but they are seldom identified to species in the literature. Caprellid amphipods (“skeleton shrimps”), with their elongated, lightly armored bodies and simple appendages, hardly resemble the other amphipods. Caprellids typically cling tightly to and crawl slowly across substrates, but they may be swept into the plankton, especially in tidal creeks. Hyperiid amphipods look like gammarideans but have huge compound eyes that cover much of the head. Unlike most other peracarids, hyperiids are entirely planktonic . All species are parasitic or commensal on gelatinous zooplankton, including jellyfishes, ctenophores, salps, and doliolids. Hyperiids are good swimmers and are caught swimming in the plankton as well as attached to jellyfish. Isopods also lack a carapace and have a rigid, plated exoskeleton like amphipods. Unlike amphipods, they are often flattened dorsoventrally, and their seven pairs of legs AMPHIPODS, ISOPODS, TANAIDACEANS, AND CUMACEANS 199 are all similar. Most isopods are benthic and are not common in the plankton. However , some are good swimmers when they leave the bottom, primarily at night. In addition, the larval stages of parasitic isopods are occasionally caught in plankton samples. Cumaceans are small (usually . Accessed August 19, 2011. Kensley, B., Schotte, M. 1989. Guide to the Marine Isopod Crustaceans of the Caribbean. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 308 pp. LeCroy, Sara E. 2000. An Illustrated Identification Guide to the Nearshore Marine and Estuarine Amphipoda of Florida. Vol. 1. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Laboratories, Tallahassee. . Accessed August 19, 2011. LeCroy, Sara E. 2002–2007. An Illustrated Identification Guide to the Nearshore Marine and Estua- 200 IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGY OF COMMON ZOOPLANKTON rine Amphipoda of Florida. Vols. 2–4. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Laboratories, Tallahassee. . Accessed August 19, 2011. Menzies, R. J., Frankenberg, D. 1966. Handbook on the Common Marine Isopod Crustacea of Georgia . University of Georgia Press, Athens. 93 pp. Richardson, H. 1905. Monograph on the Isopods of North America. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 727 pp. . Accessed August 19, 2011. Schultz, G. A. 1969. The Marine Isopod Crustacea. William C. Brown, Dubuque, IA. 359 pp. Steinberg, J. E., Dougherty, E. C. 1957. The skeleton shrimps (Crustacea: Caprellidae) of the Gulf of Mexico. Tulane Studies in Zoology 5:267–288. Watling, L. 1979. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Crustacea: Cumacea. NOAA Technical Report NMFS Circular 423. 22 pp. Zimmer, C. 1980. Cumaceans of the American Atlantic boreal coast region (Crustacea: Peracarida). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 302. 29 pp. SUGGESTED READINGS Johnson, W. S., Allen, D. M., Ogburn, M. V., et al. 1990. Short-term predation responses of adult bay anchovies Anchoa mitchilli to estuarine zooplankton availability. Marine Ecology Progress Series 64:55–68. (Gammarideans and caprellids in the plankton are favored prey of anchovies .) Johnson, W. S., Stephens, M., Watling, L. 2000. Reproduction and development of marine peracaridans . Advances in Marine Biology 39:107–260. (A review. Details on mating and the release of broods in the water column.) Peebles, E. B. 2005. An Analysis of Freshwater Inflow Effects on the Early Stages of Fish and Their Invertebrate Prey in the...


Additional Information

Related ISBN
MARC Record
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.