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CLADOCERANS AND OSTRACODS While water fleas like Daphnia are among the most common and conspicuous of freshwater zooplankton, only a few of the 600 species of cladocerans occur in brackish or marine waters. Nevertheless, marine cladocerans can be abundant and, at times, dominate the mesozooplankton . The traditional Order Cladocera has been replaced by four new orders. The orders with marine species represented here are Ctenopoda (Penilia), Anomopoda (Bosmina ), Cladocera (Leptodora), and Onychopoda (Evadne, Pseudevadne, Pleopsis, Podon). Cladocerans tend to be small (. Accessed August 18, 2011. (A guide to European species.) De Melo, R., Hebert, P. D. N. 1994. Taxonomic reevaluation of North American Bosminidae. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:1808–1825. Rivier, I. K. 1998. The predatory Cladocera (Onychopoda: Podonidae, Polyphemidae, Cercopagidae ) and Leptodorida of the world. In: Dumont, H. J., ed. Guides to the Identification of the Microinvertebrates of the Continental Waters of the World (p. 214). Vol. 13. Leiden: Backhuys , Leiden, The Netherlands. Thorpe, J. H., Covich, A. P., ed. 2010. Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press, New York. 1021 pp. Ostracod Identification The planktonic ostracod fauna in our geographical range is so poorly known that it cannot be treated in detail, so further identification is problematic; recent European guides may help. Angel, M. V. 2000. Marine Planktonic Ostracods. World Biodiversity Database. CD-ROM Series. Macintosh/Windows Version. Springer, New York. (European, but likely much overlap with U.S. fauna.) Athersuch, J., Horne D., Whittaker, J. E. 1989. Marine and Brackish Water Ostracods. E. J. Brill, New York. 343 pp. Cohen, A. C. Tabular Key to the Subclasses of Ostracoda and Families of Myodocopa. Accessed August 3, 2011. Darby, D. G. 1965. Ecology and Taxonomy of Ostracoda in the Vicinity of Sapelo Island, Georgia. Project GB-26. Report No. 2. National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA, 1–76. CLADOCERANS AND OSTRACODS 141 Poulsen, E. M. 1969. Ostracoda: ICES Zooplankton Identification Leaflets. Nos. 115–116. . Accessed August 18, 2011. (An older guide to European species.) SUGGESTED READINGS Cladoceran Biology Egloff, D. A., Fofonoff, P. W., Onbé, T. 1997. Reproductive biology of marine cladocerans. Advances in Marine Biology 31:79–167. (Includes information on distribution, including salinity range.) Fryer, G. 1987. Morphology and the classification of the so-called Cladocera. Hydrobiologia 145:19–28. (Calls for splitting the Cladocera into four separate orders.) Gieskes, W. W. W. 1971. Ecology of the Cladocera of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, 1960– 1967. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 5:342–376. Kim, S. W., Yoon, Y. H., Onbé, T. 1993. Note on the prey items of marine cladocerans. Journal of the Oceanological Society of Korea 28:69–71. Onbé, T. 1999. Ctenopoda and Onychopoda (=Cladocera). In: Boltovskoy, D., ed. South Atlantic Zooplankton. Vol. 1. Backhuys, Leiden, The Netherlands, 797–813. Richter, S., Braband, A., Aladin, N., et al. 2001. The phylogenetic relationships of “predatory water fleas” (Cladocera: Onychopoda, Haplopoda) inferred from 12 SrDNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19:105–113. Rivier, I. K. 1998. The Predatory Cladocera (Onychopoda: Podonidae, Polyphemidae, Cercopagidae ) and Leptodorida of the World. Backhuys, Leiden, The Netherlands. 214 pp. (All aspects of the biology of Podon, Pleopsis, Evadne, and Pseudevadne.) Ostracod Biology Angel, M. V. 1999. Ostracoda. In: Boltovskoy, D., ed. South Atlantic Zooplankton (pp. 815–868). Vol. 1. Backhuys, Leiden, The Netherlands. Angel, M. V. 2000. Marine Planktonic Ostracods. World Biodiversity Database. CD-ROM Series. Macintosh/Windows Version. Springer, New York. Horne, D. J., Martens, K. 2000. Evolutionary biology and ecology of Ostracoda. Special issue, Hydrobiologia 419:1–197. Schram, F. R. 1986. Ostracoda. In: Crustacea (pp. 399–422). Oxford University Press, New York. 142 IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGY OF COMMON ZOOPLANKTON Pleopsis polyphemoides, formerly Podon polyphemoides and Podon spp. Occurrence. Pleopsis polyphemoides is the most common cladoceran in coastal embayments and estuaries along the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts. It is most common in moderate salinities of 10–20 but has been reported from nearshore ocean waters. Maximum seasonal abundance occurs in spring and summer. Podon intermedius is a temperate coastal species occurring from the Chesapeake Bay north to the Gulf of Maine. Podon leuckartii is a coldwater coastal (>25 psu) species that occurs south to Virginia during winter. Biological Notes. In the Potomac River, Virginia, P. polyphemoides populations overwinter in tributaries and creeks with a salinity of about 8. During spring and summer, they disperse throughout the river, where they reach maximum densities near the mouth at about 15 psu and then enter the Chesapeake Bay main stem, where densities may exceed 50,000...


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