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Contents Preface  ix Acknowledgments  xi INTRODUCTION TO ZOOPLANKTON 1 Adaptations to Planktonic Life   2 Feeding  2 Locomotion  5 Vertical Migrations and Selective Tidal Transport   5 Defense  6 Adaptations of Planktonic Larvae   7 Factors Affecting Zooplankton Distribution   9 Plankton Distribution and Ocean Currents   10 Coastal Waters  11 Thermoclines and Coastal Stratification: Invisible Boundaries   12 Cross-Shelf Transport to Nearshore and Estuarine Areas   13 Tides and Tidal Currents   14 Coastal Embayments   15 Salinity and Estuarine Stratification   16 Benthic Habitats and Zooplankton Distribution   17 Estuarine and Coastal Planktonic Food Webs   18 Primary Productivity  18 Planktonic Food Webs  19 The “Classic” Phytoplankton → Herbivore Food Web   19 The Microbial Loop   20 Food Web Dynamics   20 A Brief History of Zooplankton Research   22 Pioneers in Zooplankton Research   22 Collection Techniques: Old and New   24 Plankton Nets   24 Plankton Pumps, Traps, and New Technologies   26 Automated Plankton Samplers, Acoustic Technology, and Video Techniques   27 Zooplankton and Environmental Quality   27 Hypoxia  27 Harmful Algal Blooms  30 Invasive and Introduced Species   30 Climate Change  31 Suggested Readings  33 IDENTIFICATION and BIOLOGY of COMMON ZOOPLANKTON How to Use This Book to Identify Zooplankton   45 Quick Picks  49 Phytoplankton  59 Protozooplankton  76 Cnidarians: Anemones, Jellyfishes, and Related Metazoans   84 Hydrozoans  85 Scyphozoans and Cubozoans   110 Ctenophores: Comb Jellies and Sea Walnuts   124 Rotifers  130 Cirripedes: Barnacle Larvae   136 Cladocerans and Ostracods   138 Copepods  148 Mysids: Opossum Shrimps   184 Amphipods, Isopods, Tanaidaceans, and Cumaceans   198 Decapods: Shrimps, Crabs, and Related Crustaceans   218 Stomatopods: Mantis Shrimps   262 Sea Spiders, Mites, and Insects   264 Annelids: Segmented Worms and Nematodes   267 Molluscs: Gastropods, Bivalves, and Cephalopods   278 Chaetognaths: Arrow Worms  290 Echinoderm Larvae: Starfishes and Sea Urchins   298 Less Common Ciliated Invertebrate Larvae   300 vi CONTENTS Lower Chordates: Larvaceans, Sea Squirts, Salps, Doliolids,   and Lancelets  302 Fish Larvae  310 APPENDIXES 1. Collecting Zooplankton   351 2. Observing Zooplankton   356 3. Relaxing, Fixing, and Preserving Zooplankton   361 4. Sample Processing and Data Analysis   367 5. Regional Zooplankton Surveys   372 Glossary  383 Literature Cited  389 Index   441 CONTENTS vii This page intentionally left blank ...


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