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631 Introduction 1. South Korea’s per-capita gross national income (GNI) shot up from a meager $67 in 1953 to $20,045 in 2007. Adjusted for inflation, its per-capita GNI grew 14-fold from 1954 to 2003, while that of the world expanded 2.8 times. The nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) grew 746-fold to $969.9 billion in 2007 from $1.3 billion in 1953. Trade volume skyrocketed to $728.3 billion in 2007 from $230 million in 1948. 2. MacDonald, The Koreans, 26. 3. Korean Culture and Information Service, “History Being Whitewashed Again-and-Again.” 1. Dawn of the Korean Nation 1. Lee, A New History of Korea, 5. 2. Iryŏn, Samguk yusa, 35–37; Cumings, Korea’s Place in the Sun, 23–24. 3. Lee, A New History of Korea, 15–16. 4. Ibid., 17. 5. Chumong’s real name was Ch’umo. Since good archers were called chumong in Puyŏ, it is certain that Chumong, who was skillful in archery, came south from Puyŏ. 6. Han, Tasi ch’annŭn uri yŏksa, 93–94. 2. The Period of the Three Kingdoms 1. It is said that Paekche was originally named Sipche, meaning “rule over ten persons ,” representing the fact that ten vassals aided Onjo in founding his state. Later the name was changed to Paekche, or “rule over 100 people,” indicating that many people followed Onjo’s leadership. 2. Han, Tasi ch’annŭn uri yŏksa, 107. 3. Paekche and Silla took advantage of internal dissension in Koguryŏ. During the reign of King Anwŏn (531–545), factionalism grew fierce among the Koguryŏ aristocracy. Two royal in-law families fought each other to enthrone their own favorite princes, until eight-year-old King Yangwŏn (545–559) was finally crowned. But the power struggle was never definitively resolved, and ceaseless struggles among the aristocracy sapped the nation ’s strength. Notes 632 Notes to Pages 44–81 4. The term Silla was a shortened word of the sentence tŏkŏp ilsin, mangna sabang, or “the virtuous rule undergoes improvement day by day and spreads in all directions.” 5. The term Kaya originated in the word Kara, a Chinese transliteration of a native Korean word meaning “village.” 6. After Koguryŏ’s downfall, many of its ruling class and soldiers were forcibly sent to Tang or massacred. In 765 the descendants of Yi Chŏng-gi, who had been forced to settle in the Shandong region, founded their own state, Qi (Che in Korean) (765–819), and carried out a total of five raids on Tang’s capital, Leyang. On one of these raids, in 783, the Tang emperor was compelled to flee to seek safety. 7. Lee, A New History of Korea, 50–51. 8. The term “Mukhoja,” meaning “black (muk) barbarian (hoja),” may be interpreted as referring to an Indian monk. Since Mukhoja was said to stay in Silla for 71–111 years, several Indian Buddhist monks appear to have clandestinely proselytized Buddhism in the kingdom. The term “Ado” also does not indicate a specific person, but several persons, specifically Buddhist monks from India. The monk Marananta was an Indian monk as well. 9. According to legend, one day Ich’adon presented himself to King Pŏphŭng, who dearly wanted to secure the acceptance of Buddhism in the kingdom. But when Ich’adon announced that he had become a Buddhist, the king had him beheaded. When the executioner completed the task, milk poured out of Ich’adon’s body instead of blood. As a result, everybody at the court came to believe that the Buddha possessed supernatural powers. Apparently the king and Ich’adon had agreed on this venture of self-sacrifice in advance. 10. Lee, Korea and East Asia, 46. Some Korean scholars claim that the Ch’ŏmsŏngdae was a temple to Inanna (or Ishtar), the Mesopotamian goddess of love and war (and possibly of heaven), said to have been worshiped by Queen Sŏndŏk. 11. Lee, A New History of Korea, 63. 12. Silla artifacts, including unique gold metalwork, demonstrate a clear influence from those of the northern nomadic steppes but less Chinese influence than those of Koguryŏ and Paekche. 13. Lee, A New History of Korea, 64. 14. Lee, Korea and East Asia, 28–29. 15. Mural paintings in Japanese royal tombs, many Korean historians believe, suggest that the Japanese imperial house lineage may have had Korean origins. 16. Lee, Korea and East...


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