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Acknowledgments ix Introduction xi 1. Dawn of the Korean Nation The Prehistoric Age 1 The Origins of the Korean People 6 Old Chosŏn 10 Confederated Kingdoms 20 2. The Period of the Three Kingdoms (57 bc–ad 676) The Growth of   Koguryŏ 32 The Rise and Decline of Paekche 38 The Rise and Growth of Silla 42 The Rise and Fall of Kaya 47 Silla’s Unification 48 Political and Social Structure of the Three Kingdoms 55 Culture of the Three Kingdoms 63 The Three Kingdoms and Japan 73 A “History War” with China 77 3. Parhae, Unified Silla, and the Later Three Kingdoms (676–936) The Rise and Growth of Parhae 84 The Government and Society of Unified Silla 91 Unified Silla’s Flourishing Culture 101 The Later Three Kingdoms 112 4. The First Half of the Koryŏ Period (918–1170) Forging a Centralized Government 122 Ruling Structure 126 Economic and Social Structure 134 Foreign Relations in the Early Koryŏ Period 141 Development of Aristocratic Culture 146 1 32 84 122 Contents vi Contents 5. The Second Half of the Koryŏ Period (1170–1392) Disturbances in Koryŏ Society 155 Koryŏ and the Mongols 165 The Downfall of Koryŏ 174 6. The First Half of the Chosŏn Period (1392–1650) The Establishment of a New Order 186 Reorganization of the Ruling Structure 193 Social Structure and Economic Life 201 Territorial Expansion and Foreign Relations 208 Culture in Early Chosŏn 210 The Growth of the Neo-Confucian Literati 218 The Struggle with the Japanese and Manchus 229 7. The Second Half of the Chosŏn Period (1650–1910) The Revival of the Dynasty 250 Cultural Rehabilitation 260 The Dynasty in Disturbance 270 Culture in the Early Nineteenth Century 273 Policies of the Taewŏn’gun 279 The Open-Door Policy and the Reform Movement 285 The Tonghak Peasant War and the Kabo Reform 295 The Downfall of Chosŏn 306 8. The Period of Japanese Colonial Rule (1910–1945) Government by the Bayonet and the March First Movement 321 Japan’s Shift to the “Cultural Policy” and Korean Nationalism 335 Japan’s Tightening Grip on Korea and Korean Nationalism 348 Japan’s Revisionist History of Korea 357 The Allied Powers’ Wartime Policy on Korea 359 9. Liberation, Division, and War (1945–1953) From Occupation to a Separate Government in Southern Korea 367 Economic and Social Problems in Southern Korea 384 Northern Korea after Liberation 391 The Two Koreas before the Korean War 397 The Korean War 407 155 186 250 321 367 vii Contents 10. The Period of Postwar Reconstruction (1953–1971) The Establishment of Authoritarian Rule in South Korea 422 The South Korean Economy and Society 438 South Korea’s Relations with the United States and Japan 446 The Rise of the Juche State in North Korea 452 The North Korean Economy 459 North Korea’s Foreign Relations 461 11. Reversal of Fortunes (1972–1992) From Autocratic Rule to Democracy in South Korea 468 The Prospering South Korean Economy 487 Militaristic South Korean Society 491 South Korea’s Foreign Relations 496 The Totalitarian State in North Korea 503 The North Korean Economy 505 North Korea’s Foreign Relations 506 North–South Korean Relations 513 12. Both Koreas in a New Phase (1993 to the Present) South Korean Democracy in Full Bloom 519 The South Korean Economy and Society 544 The Faltering Juche State in North Korea 554 North Korea’s Weapons of Mass Destruction Problem 562 North–South Korean Relations 575 The Changing ROK–U.S. Alliance 587 South Korea’s Relations with Neighboring Countries 600 Prospects for Reunification 606 Chronology 609 Notes 631 Bibliography 641 Index 645 422 468 519 ...


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