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Appendix I A Battlefield Guide to the Critical Decisions at Gettysburg There is value in being in close proximity to where a decision was made or carried out. Being on the ground provides a perspective that can’t be gained through reading or map study. In some cases this is not feasible—if you are at Gettysburg, for example, and the decision was made in Richmond or somewhere else in Virginia. Most of the critical decisions presented in this book were made and carried out at Gettysburg. Starting with the events of July 1, this appendix provides a battlefield tour that will place you on the ground exactly or in close proximity to where critical decisions were made and/or carried out. The tour is designed on a geographical basis, rather than in strict chronological order. This prevents you from having to circle back around on different days to locations that are in proximity to each other. Nevertheless, for the most part it is in chronological order. If you wish for more detail about the decisions than is provided in the guide, read the decisions discussions in the appropriate chapters. There are parking areas at most of the stops. Where there is not, park on the right half of the road. As most roads are one-way, cars will be able to pass by. Do not pull off the roads and park on the shoulders. Grammatical use and spelling were often different in the 1860s from today. However, I have left quoted material from the participants as they 98 Appendix I wrote it—for example: Emmitsburg road in the 1860s, Emmitsburg Road today; reenforce or re-enforce in the 1860s, reinforce today. * * * Begin your tour at the Visitor Center. There is an access road through the Visitor Center facility that connects the parking lots to the Baltimore Pike to the east and the Taneytown Road to the west. From any of the parking lots, drive west to the Taneytown Road. As you reach the Taneytown Road, the small house to your right front on the other side of the road is the Leister House; this is where Meade established his headquarters. Turn right on to the Taneytown Road and drive north for 0.5 mile to the intersection with Steinwehr Avenue (U.S. Business 15). The National Cemetery will be on your right as you drive on the Taneytown Road. At the intersection with Steinwehr Avenue, there is a stoplight. Steinwehr Avenue goes off to your right. Continue straight through the intersection and on to Washington Street. Drive on Washington Street for 0.6 mile to the intersection with Chambersburg Street. There is a stoplight at this intersection. As you travel along Washington Street and out to Seminary Ridge and McPherson’s Ridge, you will be following the route Brigadier General John Buford’s cavalry division used as it went through Gettysburg on June 30. In 1863 the Eagle Hotel was on the northeast corner of the intersection of Washington Street and Chambersburg Street. This is where Buford established his headquarters. Turn left on to Chambersburg Street, also named Highway U.S. 30 West. Drive west on this road. In 0.1 mile, at the stoplight, take the right fork and follow Highway 30. Continue to drive for another 0.9 mile. You will pass beyond the town and through a traffic light where Reynolds Avenue (a park road) intersects with Highway 30. At the first park road after the traffic light and just short of a small stone building, turn left and drive for 40 yards to a small parking area in the trees on your right behind the small stone building. Turn into the parking area and park. Leave your car and walk back to the Chambersburg Pike. Be extremely careful of traffic, and cross the highway. Walk to where the two statues are, stand between them, and face left (west). Gettysburg will be behind you as you are facing west. A Battlefield Guide to the Critical Decisions at Gettysburg 99 Stop 1—Buford Delays and Reynolds Reinforces, July 1, 1863 You are standing on the western edge of McPherson’s Ridge. The two statues are of Brigadier General John Buford and Major General John F. Reynolds. The Chambersburg Pike, also called the Cashtown Road, is to your left. In 1,100 yards the pike crosses Herr Ridge. Six miles west of where you are the pike passes by Cashtown. From there it continues over South Mountain to...


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