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clearly in a position of power.Thus,while the attempt to build a Walden Two failed, Ulrich did not have to let go of his notion of being an “elder,” as he calls himself (interview with the author, June 10, 1998). Yet how did the Lake Village experience affect those who were not able to establish themselves as “elders”? Chris Orsolini, who lived at Lake Village for several years with her husband,has vivid memories of the day that Ulrich and her husband had a fight and the couple realized that what they had thought was the culmination of a dream would just be a phase in their lives: “It was at that point, and it was a very heartbreaking day, that we realized that this could not be part of our lives forever. We really thought we would be there for our life. We were going to be there. And it just fell apart. And I think Roger has always had a lot of control on the farm. . . . I think there are probably other folks out there that don’t have that glowing feeling about Lake Village. I was watching some of the tapes of the party out there, and yes, it’s a wonderful place to go and party, but it’s not an easy place to live. You’ll see that a number of the people on that tape have moved off and live on the outskirts of Lake Village. Because it’s hard to live in that kind of situation , it’s very difficult, if not impossible” (interview with the author, June 10, 1998). For many, it seems, living at Lake Village was a sobering experience. They came looking for life in utopia and found a temporary excursion into a notso -perfect microsociety. The central point of disillusionment often appears to have been the leadership role played by Ulrich and the realization that a minisociety where no one is officially in power does not necessarily result in the equal distribution of power. 7 Walden Three one of the participants of the Waldenwoods conference who decided to found a Walden Two community on his own was Dr.Matt Israel,who had been Skinner’s student at Harvard and had subsequently entered the field of education.While being involved in special education in Boston in the late 1960s, Israel made grand plans for an urban Walden Two community.At the same time, he was interested in establishing a residential center for handiwalden three . 69 02.41-78_Kuhl.indd 69 3/29/05 4:01:08 PM 70 . walden two among behaviorists capped children in which behavior modification would play a central role. Ideally, both goals were to be achieved in a joint project, as Israel explained in August 1969: “I’d like to propose that some of us begin to work towards the development of an experimental school based on behavioral psychology. Such a school could be one of the income-producing enterprises of an experimental community. . . . Such a school might be added to an existing Walden Two community, provided that the members of such a community wished to have such a school and its staff there. Or, the school might serve as a nucleus for a new experimental community” (Newsletter, August 16, 1969, 1). In behaviorist circles, Israel was a well-known champion of Walden Two in the late 1950s and 1960s. He was “always talking positive reinforcement, and he was wanting to get Walden Two started,” according to Roger Ulrich (interview with the author, June 10, 1998). Skinner, who was in contact with Israel,was delighted to hear that his former student “‘has at times been completely dedicated to some kind of cultural design.’”As early as 1955,they went out for lunch together so that Israel could tell Skinner “‘about a cooperative movement not too far from Boston’” (qtd. in Bjork 160). In the 1960s, Skinner occasionally referred Walden Two enthusiasts to his former student.5 In 1966, Israel founded the Association for Social Design (ASD), which was to be the basis of a future community called Walden Three. The ASD soon had chapters in Los Angeles,Albuquerque,and Washington,D.C.These chapters were primarily discussion groups that also met for social events rather than serious attempts to found a Walden Two community.The Boston chapter, in which Israel was involved, took the lead in the publication of the newsletter, social activities, and plans for cooperative ventures, as the May 1967...


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