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Notes inTroducTion 1. In this book, I assume that “the Orient” is a Western discursive construct rather than an existing geopolitical reality but, for ease of reading, will omit scare quotes from the term and its derivatives in subsequent references. 2. Novelists increasingly use the spelling “sheikh” these days, but I have retained the original spelling, “sheik,” used by early twentieth-century novelists, unless otherwise indicated in the title. 3. For a comprehensive account of the historical, academic, and political context of Orientalism, including its reception and its problems, see Lockman (2004), Chapters Five to Seven. 4. For a discussion of male writers of romance fiction, see the forum “Male Authors of Romance/Romantic Fiction,” “Teach Me Tonight” blog site: http://; and “Male Authors of Romance/Romantic Fiction (2),” “Teach Me Tonight” blog site: .html. Accessed July 4, 2011. cHapTer 1 1. Sections of this chapter were published in Teo 2011. 2. The term “courtly love” (amour courtois) was coined by the French scholar Bruno Paulin Gaston in Paris in 1883 and popularized thereafter. 3. The first three romances can all be found in the Auchinleck manuscript, dated around 1340. Bevis also survives in six other English manuscripts, thus attesting to the huge popularity of these verse romances. For an in-depth discussion of these romances and their relationship to modern romance novels, see Amy Burge (2010, 2011b). « 308 » Notes to Pages 32–140 4. The spelling in the Auchinleck manuscript, which I used, is “Floris and Blancheflour,” but other Middle English versions translate the French tale as “Floris and Blanchefleur.” 5. See Amy Burge’s discussion of medieval geography in her thesis. 6. For an extended discussion of medieval heroines’ agency, see Judith Weiss (1991). 7. See the discussion of Josian’s agency in Myra Seaman (2001). 8. For a full discussion of monstrous races, see Debra Strickland (2000) and Rudolph Wittkower (1942). 9. At first, the Islamic population in reconquered areas was left alone, but in 1501 the Muslims in Granada were ordered to convert to Christianity or leave. This edict was then extended to the rest of Spain in 1526. Converted Muslims were known as “Moriscos” and were expelled from Spain between 1609 and 1614. 10. It should have been “Soliman I” since it was following the Suleiman I-Hurrem Sultan story. Suleiman (or Soliman) II ruled from 1687 to 1691 but had spent most of his life imprisoned in the palace cage (kafes) and was quite ineffectual as a monarch. 11. That is, the nightingale, a common way to signify the romantic Orient. cHapTer 3 1. Parts of this chapter were published in Teo 2010b. cHapTer 4 1. See, for example, Pearce (1947),Vaughn and Clark (1981),Vaughn (1983),VanDerBeets (1984), Derounian-Stodola (1993), Burnham (1997), and Strong (1999). 2. The Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine formed in 1872 as an offshoot of the Freemasons. 3. Its only foreign conflict with the North African powers to date resulted in concessions of free naval and merchant shipping passage extracted from the North African “Barbary” powers of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripolitania after the two Barbary (or Tripolitan) Wars of 1801–5 and 1815. 4. Much has been written about how Valentino challenged to a duel the author of the infamous “Pink Powder Puff” editorial in the Chicago Tribune, excoriating him as the model of American masculinity. See Melman (1988) and Leider (2003). 5. I am grateful to Eric Selinger for pointing this out. 6. Because many of these films are no longer available, I have compiled plot summaries from reviews in contemporary film magazines such as Bioscope, Photoplay, Pictureplay, and Kinematograph Weekly, as well as from The Internet Movie Database website, 7. The visual style of this, and other American harem films of the 1980s, con- noTes To pages 142–164 « 309 » trasts markedly with a contemporary French effort: Arthur Joffé’s Harem (1985), starring Nastassjia Kinski as Diane (yet another reference to The Sheik, showing its widespread influence even in French cinema), a lonely stockbroker in 1980s New York who is drugged, kidnapped, and imprisoned in the harem of an OPEC oil executive. Visually , Joffé’s harem draws more directly from Gérôme’s various paintings of Turkish baths and from ethnographic photographs of Moroccan and Algerian life discussed by Malek Alloula in The Colonial Harem (1986...


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