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N o t e s Chapter 3 1. Recently, however, others have suggested that in some communities provision of adequate menstrual protection may not affect school attendance (Oster and Thornton 2011; Lloyd forthcoming). 2. Prior to conducting the research, the author expected to find gaps in girls’ knowledge about what was happening in their maturing bodies, along with a potential gap in knowledge about how to manage their menstruation in potentially “girl-unfriendly” school settings. The research was designed to collect girls’ own perceptions of the challenges they face and to help develop appropriate solutions. This summary focuses on the data that were used to develop a girls’ puberty book project in Tanzania (Sommer 2009b). Chapter 5 1. Asian urban population is bi-modal: 46 percent (868 million) live in the smallest cities (under 500,000) and another 22 percent (418 million) live in cities with 1 to 5 million people. 2. Substandard sanitation includes openly defecating (7 percent of the total), using an unimproved facility (20 percent), or using a shared facility (8 percent). 3. Substandard drinking water is that from an unprotected dug well or spring, from a cart with a small tank/drum, from surface water (river, stream, pond, lake), or bottled water. 4. The informal sector is defined as the unregulated nonformal portion of the market economy that produces goods and services for sale or for other forms of remuneration. It includes those who work in homes, as independent contractors, as street vendors, and as seasonal workers. 5. These figures include agricultural and nonagricultural work. Chapter 7 1. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly, is often described as an international bill of rights for women (CEDAW 1979: article 12). It identifies what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination. The convention 278 Notes to Pages 112–178 defines discrimination against women as “any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.” The convention provides a firm basis for bringing about equality between women and men through ensuring women’s equal access to, and equal opportunities in, political and public life—including the right to vote and to stand for election—as well as education, health, and employment. Under this convention, States agreed to take all the necessary steps, including legislation or temporary measures, for women to benefit from all their human rights and fundamental freedoms. 2. The International Conference on Population and Development, coordinated by the United Nations and held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994, with delegates from various governments, United Nations agencies, and nongovernmental organizations, achieved consensus around universal education, reduction of infant and child mortality, reduction of maternal mortality, and access to reproductive and sexual health services including family planning (The International Conference on Population and Development 1994). 3. The 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women adopted the Beijing Platform for Action, which consolidated the recommendations of seven previous conferences and reaffirmed the commitment to the empowerment and advancement of women including the right to freedom of thought, conscience, religion, and belief, thus contributing to the moral, ethical, spiritual, and intellectual needs of women and men, individually or in community with others, and thereby guaranteeing them the possibility of realizing their full potential in society and shaping their lives in accordance with their own aspirations (Beijing Platform for Action 1995: paragraph 12). 4. In 2000, the United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals to address the world’s main development challenges. Each goal has elements that can be enhanced through gender and urbanization (The Millennium Development Goals 2000). For example, the first goal on halving extreme poverty and hunger by 2015 requires considerable attention to impoverished women in slums to help them overcome the extra barriers they face in securing rewarding employment. In its third goal, gender equality and women’s empowerment are clearly emphasized. The seventh goal refers to ensuring environmental sustainability, which directly relates to gender equality and sustainable urbanization. In addition, this goal targets the improvement of the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020. For this purpose, data collection is needed to...


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