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1. Introduction Southern Mozambique has been a significant labour exporting area for more than 150 years (Harries, 1995; Katzenellenbogen, 1982; Jeeves, 1985). However, apart from migration occurring from Tete Province to Southern Rhodesia in the early 1900s, the rest of Mozambique has supplied almost no external labour migration and experienced comparatively little internal labour migration. Such a regional dichotomy allows for interesting comparisons, especially in regard to the impact of migration on household accumulation and wealth. In the 1980s, household differentiation was clearly evident in southern Mozambique, largely because of the fairly significant wage differentials between relatively skilled and unskilled mineworkers (First, 1983). Although many migrant-sending households clearly benefited from migration, the majority of these remained impoverished and became wage-dependent as their capacity to produce subsistence crops diminished. External work opportunities and conditions for migrants, especially after the abolition of apartheid, have become much more varied, leading to a much higher degree of household differentiation than prevailed from the mid-1800s to 1990 (de Vletter, 2000). This chapter demonstrates that rural southern Mozambique, an area relatively bereft of resources and traditionally less productive agriculturally than other regions of Mozambique (due to poorer soils and erratic weather patterns), is now more developed and better off (at least in terms of average income and levels of wealth) than other rural areas. This difference is largely attributed to labour migration and the transfer of significant volumes of remittances. MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN MOZAMBIQUE: POVERTY, INEQUALITY AND SURVIVAL FION DE VLETTER 9 Chapter|146| Although migrant worker households are often seen as better off than non-migrant supplying households, there are, indeed, significant numbers of the former that are vulnerable to poverty . These households are usually deficit agricultural producers, being largely dependent on migrant remittances. In turn, with the increasingly harsh attitude to unskilled illegal migrants in South Africa, their employment situation has become less and less secure (Crush, 1999). Although external migration is the preferred employment option for many Mozambicans, it represents the option of last resort for many others simply because of the limited employment absorption capacity of Mozambique’s formal economy. In South Africa, employment is available for almost anyone willing to risk the consequences of illegal entry and prepared to be exploited, meaning that the remittances or accumulated wages brought home are likely to be minimal. This chapter undertakes an inter-regional analysis (based on the results of a national survey of some 4000 rural households) of the south, centre and north of Mozambique, demonstrating clear developmental differences that are largely attributable to many years of remittances channelled to the mainly rural areas of southern Mozambique. 2. Methodology This study draws mainly from the results of two surveys: the National Roads Administration (ANE)/Austral Survey of Rural Households (1999–2001) and the Southern African Migration Programme (SAMP) Migration and Remittances Survey (MARS) (Pendleton et al., 2006) described below. Supporting data was drawn from the 1996 SAMP Survey of Mozambican Miners (de Vletter, 1998). The rural household study was used because it incorporated detailed questions on migrant labour and looked at a broad range of variables to determine household wealth. The results of the MARS provide important new revelations on migrant remittance patterns which help us better understand the influence of migration on development and household differentiation. Details of the three surveys are provided below. ANE/Austral Survey of Rural Households (1999–2001) The National Roads Administration (ANE), in collaboration with the consulting company – Austral Consultants (Austral Consultoria e Projectos) – conducted a comprehensive rural household survey covering all regions of Mozambique along selected sections of rehabilitated secondary roads. The sample consisted of approximately 4000 households. These households were visited annually over a period of three years (1999–2001), with the primary objective of measuring the socio-economic impact of road rehabilitation. The survey provided an excellent opportunity to also collect detailed economic data for rural households, including comprehensive information on migrant labour. Regions were defined as follows: • South: Provinces of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane, as well as Maputo City • Centre: Sofala, Manica, Zambezia and Tete • North: Nampula, Niassa and Cabo Delgado. MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN MOZAMBIQUE: POVERTY, INEQUALITY AND SURVIVAL|147| SAMP Migration and Remittances Survey (2004) The SAMP MARS was conducted in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. The survey interviewed only households with external migrants and focused on remittance patterns and migration history. The Mozambique survey consisted of 726 households located in the south. The survey areas were randomly sampled and included households in rural and...


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