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145 n ot e s introduCtion 1. Works such as Nancie Gonzalez’s Sojourners of the Caribbean: Ethnogenesis and Ethnohistory of the Garífuna (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988); Ruy Galvão de Andrade Coelho, Los Negros caribes de Honduras, 2d ed. (Tegucigalpa: Editorial Guaymuras, 2002 [1981]); E. Salvador Suazo’s Los deportados de San Vicente (Tegucigalpa; Editorial Guaymuras , 1997); and numerous other studies in the United States and Honduras have addressed the origins of Garífuna society in Honduras. 2. Kenneth V. Finney, “Rosario and the Election of 1887: The Political Economy of Mining in Honduras,” Hispanic American Historical Review 59, 1 (February 1979): 81. 3. Mario R. Argueta, El sector laboral hondureño durante la reforma liberal (Tegucigalpa: Universitaria Autonoma de Honduras, 1981), 13. 4. Ross Graham, “The Bay Islands English: Stages in the Evolution of a Cultural Identity ,” in English-Speaking Communities in Latin America, ed. Oliver Marshall (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000), 298. 5. For an analysis of the Anglo-Hispanic conflict in the Bay Islands, see William V. Davidson , Historical Geography of the Bay Islands, Honduras: Anglo-Hispanic Conflict in the Western Caribbean (Birmingham, AL: Southern University Press, 1974). In an effort to document the history and culture of the English-speaking peoples of the Bay Islands, Davidson explores the issue of preserving Bay Islands culture in a political and economic climate in which Honduran efforts to Hispanicize the islands, combined with North American tourism , facilitated the demise of the unique culture of the islands. 6. Marvin Barahona, Evolución histórica de la identidad nacional (Tegucigalpa: Editorial Guaymuras, 2002), 14–15. 7. See Darío Euraque, Conversaciones historicas con el mestizaje y su identidad nacional en Honduras (San Pedro Sula, Honduras: Centro Editorial, 2004). Chapters 5 and 6 are dedicated to issues of blackness in Honduras. In chapter 5 the author focuses on the mulatto communities in the town of Olanchito and chapter 6 is dedicated to the Garífuna experience . Within the context of focusing on the latter, Euraque speaks to relations between the 146 notes to PAGes 4–7 Garífuna and West Indian communities in Tela and La Ceiba during the height of West Indian settlement in the department of Atlántida during the early twentieth century. 8. Edmund T. Gordon, Disparate Diasporas: Identity and Politics in an African Nicaraguan Community (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998), 30. 9. Euraque, Conversaciones historicas, 125. 10. Robinson Herrera notes the variation of slavery in Central America, particularly Guatemala in which Indian labor was exploited in the mines. African labor only became the preferred source of labor once the Spanish officially banned Indian slavery in the sixteenth century. Until then, African slavery was deemed unnecessary except to serve as a status symbol for the elite. See Robinson Herrera, “Porque no sabemos firmar: Black Slaves in Early Guatemala,” The Americas 57, 2 (October 2000): 247–67. Rafael Leiva Vivas gives a more accurate depiction of the Honduran situation in which the importation of enslaved Africans into Honduras to regions such as Gracias a Dios, Puerto Caballos, Trujillo, San Pedro , Comayagua, and other areas increased in 1542 when the Spanish crown authorized the trade. See Rafael Leiva Vivas, Tráfico de esclavos negros a Honduras (Tegucigalpa: Editorial Guaymuras, 1987), 90–94. 11. Linda Newson, The Cost of Conquest: Indian Decline in Honduras Under Spanish Rule (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1986), 404. Though primarily a study on the indigenous population , Newson devotes attention to the establishment of African Maroon communities on the North Coast and La Mosquitia and the Afro-indigenous culture that emerged there. This culture is not to be confused with the Garífuna or black Carib culture that constitutes a majority in the region. 12. In his assessment of the concept of negritude within the Garífuna community, Euraque highlights the interactions between the Garífuna and West Indians. He maintains that West Indians were rejected not only by nonblack Hondurans, but by Garífuna as well. This was due largely to sociocultural differences and the preferred status of West Indians in the banana industry. See Euraque, Conversaciones históricas, 188. Elizet Payne Iglesias argues that the North Coast and the Bay Islands were instrumental in the development of Honduran conceptions of nationhood. She asserts that the obstacle for the North Coast was to create the characteristics of a homogenous identity in line with the rest of the country. This often led to violent encounters between mestizos and blacks as the...

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