In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

I 2 BACKGROUND T h e purpos e of this chapter is to describe the background against which recent developments must be examined. The first section gives a brief description of the resource characteristics of Tanzania. The next section reviews briefly the postindependence economic developments culminating in the recent adjustment efforts. The third section outlines the macroeconomic structure, while the fourth section briefly review s the agricultural and industrial sectors. POPULATION, NATURA L RESOURCES , AN D AGROCLIMATI C ZONE S A low population density and a varied agricultural resource base give Tanzania a particularly robust agricultural sector. Its mineral resources include coal, iron ore deposits, phosphates, and smaller deposits of copper, lead, tin, nickel, and sulphur. Soda comes from Lake Natron, and salt can be obtained from certain springs and the sea. Gold and diamonds are present in significant quantities . Tanzania has access to the Great Lakes region of East Africa (see Map 1). In the north, Lake Victoria borders both Uganda and Kenya. Lake Tanganyika in the west is the border with Zaire, and Lake Nyasa in the southwest borders with Malawi. These lakes, together with Tanzania's marine resources i n the coastal areas, constitute major, but relatively undeveloped, fishery resources. Addition5 MAPI Map of Tanzania Source: World Bank (1991). Background 7 ally, Tanzania' s rivers hav e significan t potentia l fo r hydroelectric powe r an d irrigation. Tanzania is a country of low population density. In 1988,22.5 million people inhabited 881,28 9 squar e kilometers , whic h implie s a densit y o f abou t 25. 5 persons per square kilometer. Relatively few towns exist, the major ones being Dar es Salaam, with approximately 1. 4 million people, and Mwanza, with about 180,000 people . Onl y 5 percen t o f th e tota l lan d are a i s cultivated , althoug h nearly 90 percent of the country could at least theoretically suppor t some type of farming (Lan d Resources Development Centre 1987) . Large areas, however, are tsets e fl y infested , whic h preclude s thei r settlemen t b y eithe r peopl e o r animals. The incidence of the tsetse fly produces a typical pattern of population settlement characterized by pockets of densely populated, tsetse-free areas. According t o three demographic censuse s (take n i n 1967 , 1978 , an d 1988 , respectively) the population growth rate declined significantly, from 3.3 percent for the 1967-1978 period, to 2.8 percent during the 1978-1988 period. This trend has been accompanied by a slowing of the growth of the urban population, which grew at an average annual rate of 10. 7 percent during 1967-1978 but at only 5. 4 percent for the 1978-198 8 period. Tanzania has been described as the country with the most varied ecology o f any in Africa, enabling a wide variety of agricultural activities to be undertaken. These rang e fro m highlan d te a an d coffe e productio n t o arid-are a nomadi c pastoralism. Mos t o f Tanzania' s semiari d centra l zon e i s suite d fo r extensiv e farming systems and livestock production, due to the high rainfall variability and fragile soils . Small-scale , rain-fe d cultivatio n of cereals (sorghum an d millet), tubers, and cotton is undertaken by farming communities that are often areas of locally high population densities due to the presence of the tsetse fly elsewhere. Livestock i s produce d b y th e nomadi c Masa i an d a number o f seminomadi c groups who are responsible for most of the country's production. A tropica l fores t cove r i s foun d alon g th e coas t an d o n Zanzibar . Her e coconuts, cashew nuts, rubber, cocoa, cloves, sisal, various spices, and fruits are grown. Nex t t o maiz e an d rice, cassav a i s a n important foo d crop . Th e mai n growing seaso n is from March to July. The northern coastal area has a second, but short, rainy season in November-December. Soil s are mainly sandy, except for the clayish bottomlands in the river valleys. The western part of the country is dominated by a plateau about 1,000 meters high, which has an average rainfall of over 750 millimeters per year. The growing season i s betwee...


Additional Information

Related ISBN
MARC Record
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.