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PREFACE This compilation is an attempt to bring together all the taxonomic information about grasses in Texas. I tried to include every grass reported for, or thought to occur in, the state. My desire was to assure users that if they collected a grass within the borders of Texas, it would be found somewhere in this work. This is an impossible task, of course, because the grass flora in Texas is still very under collected and poorly documented (Shaw, Rector, & Dube 2011). I am convinced there are numerous new species and new introductions in the state. I fancy that numerous species only collected once or a few times within Texas, and suggested as perhaps not a permanent member of the flora, can still be found. All works of this type are based on the dedicated efforts of those who came before us. Credit goes to all collectors who braved the elements and other obstacles to fulfill their passion for collecting grasses in Texas. Often overlooked and frequently forgotten is the first compilation of grasses for the entire state completed by W. A. Silveus, who self-published Texas Grasses in 1933. Silveus said he traveled over 60,000 miles during a 3-year period collecting and photographing as many species as possible. Certainly the roads in the late 1920s and early 1930s were not nearly as conducive to rapid and comfortable automobile travel as today. He accomplished his tasks without air conditioning or the luxury of a digital camera. It would still be a strenuous effort and take a very dedicated individual to accomplish what he did. Amazingly he was not a trained agrostologist, he was lawyer! Albert S. Hitchcock’s Manual of the Grasses of the United States (1935), and revised by Mary Agnes Chase in 1951, was the authority for Texas grass identification for nearly 40 years. That changed with the publication of Gould’s Grasses of Texas (1975a). This monumental work presented a new taxonomic classification of the grasses and provided keys, descriptions, distributions, and numerous illustrations. It covered 523 grass species reported for the state but excluded most ornamentals and a few cultivars. The recent volumes on the Poaceae in the Flora of North America series by Barkworth et al. (2003, 2007) have replaced Hitchcock’s manual as the new authority on grasses north of Mexico. Obviously, Gould (1975a) and Barkworth et al. (2003, 2007) were used extensively in this compilation. Also consulted were state floras (Lundell 1961, Correll and Johnston 1970) and regional treatments: Grasses of the Texas Coastal Bend (Gould and Box 1965); Grasses (Poaceae) of the Texas Cross Timbers and Prairies (Hignight, Wipff, and Hatch 1988); Guide to Grasses of the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas (Lonard 1993); Grasses of the Trans-Pecos and Adjacent Areas (Powell 1994); Grasses of the Texas Gulf Prairies and Marshes (Hatch, Schuster, and Drawe 1999); Flora of North Central Texas (Diggs, Lipscomb, and O’Kennon (1999); and Grasses of the Texas Hill Country: A Field Guide (Loflin and Loflin 2006). While this book was in production, a Grasses of South Texas: A guide to identification and value (Everitt et al. 2011) was published, but it was impossible to incorporate their information into this work. Checklists, a valuable tool in themselves, were used extensively in compilation of this book. Cory and Parks (1937) made an early attempt at a complete catalog of the Texas flora. Gould’s (1962, 1969, 1975b) Texas Plants—A x Preface Checklist and Ecological Summary was a standard for over 25 years until updated by Hatch, Gandhi, and Brown (1990). An excellent list that included many ornamental grasses is Vascular Plants of Texas (Jones, Wipff, and Montgomery 1997). The blending of old and new sources of information has increased the total number of grass taxa reported for the state to 9 subfamilies, 19 tribes, 723 species, 79 subspecies , and 110 varieties. The county distribution information came from over 17,500 records found mostly in Barkworth et al. (2003, 2007) and Turner (2003). These records were integrated with the revised 12 ecoregions defined by the Environmental Protection Agency to yield the expanded ecological information in this book’s checklist. During the production of this volume, a Distribution of Texas Grasses (Shaw, Rector, and Dube 2011) was published. It includes lists of species by county, counties by species and summaries by ecoregions. The astute reader will notice slight variations in the total number of species by ecoregion, county records, etc. The distributional data in Shaw, Rector, and Dube...


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