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173 Appendix B Annotated Checklist of Selected ‘Ukulele Methods and Songbooks, 1894–1920 When mainland retailers began selling ‘ukuleles, it quickly became the custom to offer a self-instructor with each instrument sold (in addition to those stores that provided in-house lessons). As early as July 1912, the Los Angeles music house of George J. Birkel Co. was advertising a “ukulele outfit”—a genuine Hawaiian ukulele , case, instructor, and extra set of strings—for $10. However, which tuning one learned depended on the method or instructor one happened to have. “I have been studying the method of Mr. [Charles] Delano in which the strings are tuned to A, D, F sharp and B,” a perplexed Cora L. Butler of Port Richmond, New York, wrote Cadenza in October 1916. “A few days ago I bought a method at Carl Fischer’s published by Sherman, Clay & Co. of San Francisco . . . and the strings are to be tuned G, C , E, A. A method by William J. Smith sold by John Wanamaker is for the first tuning mentioned. Now, unless something is done at once we are going to have two sets of players unable to play from the same score and no end of trouble.” C tuning —the familiar “my dog has fleas”—eventually won out. 1. E. C. Holstein, Chords of the Taro-Patch Guitar (Honolulu: Hawaiian News Company, 1894), 16 pp. Chord diagrams only; C tuning. The only known copy is in the Hawaii State Archives. 2. Ernest K. Kaai, The Ukulele: A Hawaiian Guitar and How to Play It (Honolulu : Wall, Nichols Company, 1906), 40 pp. Chord diagrams and rudimentary tablature; C tuning. The first real ‘ukulele method. Copy in the Hawaiian Mission Children’s Society Library, Honolulu. 3. Ukulele Method (Honolulu, T.H.: Bergstrom Music Co., n.d. [ca. 1907]), 8 pp. Chord diagrams only; C tuning. Copy in the Paul Weber collection. Although undated, the sheet music listed for sale on the inside back cover (including J. K. Aea’s “Honolulu Hula Hula Heigh,” 1906) suggest a ca. 1907 publication date for this anonymous pamphlet. 174 Appendix B 4. T. H. Rollinson, ed., Method for the Ukulele (Hawaiian Guitar) (Boston: Oliver Ditson Co., 1909), 16 pp. Standard notation; C tuning. The first method published on the mainland. Rollinson (1844–1928) was a cornet player and prolific composer and arranger for Oliver Ditson Co. of Boston. 5. Mekia Kealakai, Chords of the Ukulele (no publisher, place, or date of publication is listed; the copy in the Library of Congress was received July 23, 1909), 13 pp. Calling itself “the only Book of its kind ever been Published,” it advocates D tuning and provides chords for eleven major keys and their relative minor keys. 6. Ernest K. Kaai, The Ukulele: A Hawaiian Guitar and How to Play It, rev. ed. (Honolulu: Wall, Nichols Company, 1910), 44 pp. Reengraved edition based on the 1906 method. 7. Major [Mekia] Kealakai, Self Instructor for the Ukulele and Taro-Patch Fiddle (Los Angeles: Southern California Music Company, 1912–1914), 45 pp. Chord diagrams and standard notation; D tuning for ‘ukulele (what became known as “mainland tuning”), C tuning for taro-patch. Kealakai was living in San Francisco in 1913, advertising his ability to furnish Hawaiian music for all occasions, as well as ‘ukulele, taro-patch, and guitar lessons. (San Francisco Chronicle, March 23, 1913). A subsequent revised edition (ca. 1917) is titled The Ukulele (Ukulele Banjo) and How to Play Them. 8. Jos. V. Christy, Self Instruction Book for the Ukulele or the Banjo-Uke (San Jose, CA: Ferguson Music House, 1912), 8 pp. C tuning. With banjo-uke in the title, this edition was published ca. 1917 or later, but the copyright date suggests the original title was Self Instruction Book for the Ukulele. 9. C. S. Delano, Instructions for Playing the Ukulele (Los Angeles, ca. 1913), 2 pp. D tuning, how to read standard notation, pick the strings, stroke technique, triple fingering. In the January 1914 issue of Cadenza, Delano advertised his courses for ‘ukulele and steel guitar, “every detail explained in full,” for the premium price of $12. “I have the only solos for either instrument by note.” In a January 1917 Cadenza profile of Delano, it was reported that twenty thousand copies of his solos and methods had been sold during the previous year; Delano offered a new, enlarged edition in an advertisement in the same issue. 10. N. B. Bailey, A Practical Method for Self Instruction on the...


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