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167 Appendix A Chronological List of Early Hawaiian Luthiers Augusto Dias (1842–1915), flourished (fl.) 1884–1910 Dias is the first ‘ukulele maker for whom there is any documentation: He appears in the 1884–1885 Honolulu City Directory as a guitar and furniture maker at 11 King St. Burned out in the 1886 Chinatown fire, he and Jose do Espirito Santo were working as partners in 1887 on Nuuanu Street. He is listed at various addresses on Nuuanu and King through 1900, when he lost everything for the second time in the Chinatown fire of that year. After three years as an employee of the Porter Furniture Co., he was once again listed as a guitar maker in the 1904–1905 city directory, opening his own shop on Union Street in 1907. He retired from active business ca. 1911, dying four years later of tuberculosis. His instruments are the rarest of the early makers: To date, only twelve have been identified. Manuel Nunes (1843–1922), fl. 1885–1917 Listed as a cabinet maker with C. E. Williams in the 1884–1885 Honolulu City Directory, Nunes advertised his “cabinetmaking shop of string instruments, guitars and machetes” in Honolulu’s new Portuguese-language newspaper in August 1885. His directory listings at various addresses alternate between guitar maker and cabinet maker through 1903, after which he is always listed as a guitar maker. His claim to be the inventor of the ‘ukulele first surfaced in 1909, around the time the firm of M. Nunes & Sons was formed, and it was featured in all subsequent advertising. Nunes ‘ukuleles were among the first Hawaiian-made instruments to be distributed and sold on the mainland. Southern California Music Co. of Los Angeles first advertised M. Nunes ‘ukuleles in July 1914 and became Nunes’ national distributor . Nunes appears to have gone out of business in 1917, after which all directory listings cease; Southern California Music announced it was no longer Nunes’ U.S. representative in November 1917. Appendix A 168 Jose do Espirito Santo (1850–1905), fl. 1885–1905 Santo does not appear in the Honolulu City Directory until the 1888–1889 edition, but he first advertised his services as a cabinet and guitar maker in 1885. He is the only one of the three original makers who is consistently identified in the city directory as a guitar maker throughout his career. A partner with Dias in 1887 and again in 1896, he otherwise worked alone. He continued to produce instruments until his sudden death in 1905. Santo was the most aggressive marketer of the original makers, advertising in Portuguese and English in Honolulu newspapers and in the city directory. Naapohou, fl. 1898–1899 Nothing is known about the first Native Hawaiian ‘ukulele maker, apart from his brief listing in the 1898–1899 Honolulu City Directory: “Naapohou, guitar maker, resides Queen north of Richard.” Jose Vierra, fl. 1900–1901 Vierra makes only a single appearance as a guitar maker: “Jose Vierra, guitar maker, resides west side of Pauoa Valley Road north of Punchbowl” (1900–1901 Honolulu City Directory). Manuel Fernandez, fl. 1903 Like Vierra, Fernandez makes only a single appearance as a guitar maker: “Manuel Fernandez, guitar maker, resides 1417 Canavarro Lane” (Honolulu City Directory, 1903–1904). Leonardo (Leandro) Nunes (1874–1944), fl. 1912–1930 The second son of ‘ukulele pioneer Manuel Nunes, Leonardo is listed as working in his father’s Honolulu firm from 1908 to 1912, when he moved to Los Angeles and began building his own instruments—the first known mainland ‘ukulele maker. George J. Birkel Co. of Los Angeles sold L. Nunes ‘ukuleles in 1913 (and possibly earlier); by 1915, his instruments were being distributed nationally in direct competition with his father’s instruments (Lyon & Healy carried his ‘ukuleles that year). He introduced his Uka Pila and Ki Pila (eight- and ten-string, respectively) models in 1923 and his Radio Tenor model ca. 1925. Leonardo is listed as a ‘ukulele or instrument maker in the Los Angeles City Directory through 1929. He appears to have been out of the business by 1930. Nunes Ukulele Company, fl. 1915 In 1915, Julius Nunes, son of Manuel Nunes, is listed as manager of what appears to be a rival ‘ukulele company: “Nunes Ukulele Co., Jules Nunes Manager. Manufacturers of Hawaiian String Instruments, 1124 South Beretania, Telephone 4026” Early Hawaiian Luthiers 169 (Honolulu City Directory, 1915). The listing disappeared the following year; nothing more is known about this firm. James N. Anahu, fl. 1910–1922 James Anahu first appeared...


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