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PREFACE The major works ofJapanese historical writinghave been translated into English. Believingthat these translations are made for the use of scholars , I have cited them freely; however, I have preferred my own renderings of some passages, as indicated in the footnotes. Japanese names are given in Japanese style; that is, family name followed by personal name. For example, the name of Kitabatake Chikafusa gives first his family name, Kitabatake, and then his personal name, Chikafusa. The particle "no" has been eliminated from most names as unhelpful to readers of English (e.g., Sugawara no Michizane means "Michizane of the Sugawara family"; this becomes Sugawara Michizane, in the modern Japanese style). The only exceptions are the names of the men associated with the composition of Kojiki, Hieda no Are and O no Yasumaro, which are so familiar that they would seem strange without the particle. The distinction between long and short vowels is preserved throughout the work by the customary macrons over "O" and "u" to indicate long vowels, except for the names of Tokyo, Kyoto, and Osaka, and the terms Shinto and Shogun which are familiar in English without macrons. The research for this work has been conducted under generous grants from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the University of Toronto, the University of Toronto-York University Joint Centre for Asia Pacific Studies, and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. This book has been published with the help of a grant from the Social Science Federation, using funds provided by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. ix X POLITICAL THOUGHT IN JAPANESE HISTORICAL WRITING I must acknowledge the assistance of many people. Kanai Madoka, Professor Emeritus, Tokyo University Historiographical Institute, provided a generous welcome to the Institute and arranged for access to the periodicals collection of Tokyo University. Ishida Ichiro, Professor Emeritus, Tokai University, shared his many theories on Japanese history and society on several of my visits to Japan. Professor Kano Masanao, Waseda University, gave me much useful material and information . Professor Tamagake Hiroyuki, Tohoku University, instructed me on Tokugawaperiod thought in a special one-person seminar. Hokao Ken'ichi, Professor Emeritus, Tohoku University, arranged for me to stay there in 1982and 1983,and was a genialhost. Professor Uwayokote Masataka, who suffered through my first year as a Research Fellow at Kyoto University, has been unfailingly kind and helpful ever since. The stern criticisms of Professor David Abosch of the State University of New York at Buffalo were most helpful. Professor JamesMcMullen extended a timely invitation to Oxford University in 1985 to organize my thoughts. Mr. John Parry was an invaluable copy editor. The staff of the East Asian Library, University of Toronto, especially Mr. David Chang, were always helpful. Finally, I must acknowledge the one who filled up my room with a rising pool of ink, so that I had either to write in order to diminishit, or drown. Toronto, Canada March 1, 1990 J. S. B. The oldest manuscript of Japan's oldest book: the Shinpukuji text (1370) of Kojiki (712). (Courtesy of Shogakukan Inc., Tokyo.) XI The gate of Fujimori Shrine, Kyoto. The principal deity is Prince Toneri, who presented Nihon Shoki to the throne in 720. Because "toneri" also meant the name of a low official in ancient times, the shrine pronounces the name of its deity "lehito." Retired Emperor Go Toba, who tried to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu in the Jokyu War, 1221, and failed. (Courtesy of Chikuma Shobo Publishing Company Ltd., Tokyo.) Xlll The burial place of Emperor Chukyo, atopahillinFushimi-ku, Kyoto; there are few visitors. He reigned as a child for 70-odd days in 1221, and was deposed after the Jokyu War. Myoe Shonin of the Kegon Sect, in meditation in nature. His biography, Myoe Shonin Denki, contains the sharpest political analysis in traditional Japanese history. (Courtesy of Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.) xv Emperor Go Daigo, who succeeded in overthrowing the Kamakura Bakufu in 1333. xvi Aral Hakuseki, author of the rationalist history Tokushi Yoron (1712). (Courtesy of Yoshikawa Kobunkan, Tokyo.) xvii This page intentionally left blank ...


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