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36 Chapter Five The Mission Landscape . / Although twenty Franciscan missionaries accompanied Governor Oñate to New Mexico in 1598, and he assigned them to the various pueblos as one of his firsts acts upon arrival, little missionary work was accomplished during the first few years of the colony. In the fall of 1601, all but three of the religious personnel then in New Mexico accompanied the majority of the settlers who deserted the colony at that time.1 Additional friars were sent to New Mexico, but only three remained by the time the new governor arrived in early 1610.2 Needless to say, expansion of the mission establishment during the Oñate era was limited. Only two intermittently served missions besides the one at the capital, San Gabriel, were established (table 5): San Ildefonso, located some twelve miles south along the Rio Grande, and Santo Domingo, another thirty miles farther south (see map 1, p. 205).3 Additional missionaries came with Governor Pedro de Peralta in 1610, and at this time permanent church-convents were built at San Ildefonso and Kewa (Santo Domingo). During the following decade, eight other missions and three visitas (visiting parishes) were established besides the Hermita de San Miguel in Santa Fe. One mission was at Nambé Pueblo among the Tewa of the Española basin, or La Cañada as it was then known. Two were at the Tano pueblos of Galisteo and San Lázaro in the Galisteo basin. Among the Keres in the Santo Domingo basin, where the mission at Kewa (Santo Domingo) Pueblo was made headquarters of the Franciscan missions in New Mexico, the pueblos of Cochiti and San Felipe were made visitas. In the adjacent lower Jemez River valley, Zia Pueblo was made a mission and The Mission Landscape 37 Table 5. Seventeenth-Century New Mexico Missions* Mission Pueblos Date Established Comment San Gabriel 1598–99 Church-convent; was abandoned ca. 1610. Santa Fe ca. 1610 Called Hermita de San Miguel. San Ildefonso 1610 Church-convent. Santo Domingo 1610 Became mission headquarters beginning in 1610. Galisteo 1610–12 First permanent Tano mission. Sandia 1610 Established in 1610 or soon thereafter. Isleta 1612 (late) Possibly established in early 1613. Zía 1613, possibly 1610 First mentioned in 1613 but was possibly founded in 1610. Nambé 1613 Convent. San Lázaro 1613 Established as a visita of Galisteo by 1621. Chilili 1613–14 Convent. Cochiti 1614 Visita of Santo Domingo. Santa Ana 1614 Visita of Zía. San Felipe 1615 Visita of Santo Domingo. Pecos 1619 Permanent mission. San Felipe 1621 Convent. Picurís 1621 Abandoned in 1625 and reestablished in 1628. Taos 1621 or early 1622 Reestablished ca. 1627. Jemez (San Jose) 1621 (late) Abandoned in 1630s. Jemez (San Diego) 1621–22 Abandoned in 1623 and refounded between 1626 and 1629. Abó ca. 1622 Convent. Socorro 1626 Convent. Quarac ca. 1626–28 Convent. Santa Clara ca. 1628 Convent. Ácoma 1629 Convent. Senecú 1629 Convent. Tajique ca. 1629 Convent. Chapter five 38 a visita was established at Santa Ana Pueblo. Farther south in the Middle Rio Grande region, missions were established at Sandia and Isleta Pueblos in 1610 and 1612 respectively, and in between 1613 and 1614 a mission was established at Chilili Pueblo on the east side of the Manzano Mountains, a remarkably remote location at that time.4 At another remote location was the mission established in 1619 at Pecos Pueblo on the eastern frontier.5 The foundation of missions was even more intense during the 1620s. Some of this activity involved infilling within the areas where missions had already been established.6 With the building of a convent at the Keres pueblo of San Felipe in 1621, it was upgraded from its status as a visita, while the Tano pueblo of San Lázaro was downgraded to a visita of the Galisteo mission that Table 5. continued Mission Pueblos Date Established Comment Las Humanas ca. 1629 Soon abandoned, becoming a visita of Abó until reestab- lished between 1659 and 1660. Tabirá ca. 1629 Visita of Las Humanas by the 1660s. Tenabó ca. 1629 Church. Sevilleta ca. 1630–34 Convent. Alamillo ca. 1638 Replaced Sevilleta. San Marcos ca. 1638 Convent. San Juan by 1641 Visita of Santa Clara. Pojoaque by 1641 May have been a visita of San Ildefonso. Jacona by 1641 May have been a visita of San Ildefonso. Cuyamungue by 1641 Visita of Nambé. Tesuque by 1641 Visita of Santa Fe. La Ciénega by 1641 Visita of San...

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