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Chapter 9 The Structure of the Clause 1. Ordering of the Clausal Constituents In the prototypical (transitive declarative) Macedonian clauses, the ordering of the clausal constituents follows the pattern of the majority of European languages. As shown in (1), in transitive declarative clauses, the verb is preceded by a subject and followed by an object. (1) Petre kupi kniga. Petre buy.3Sg.Aor book ‘Petre bought a book.’ Thus, prototypically, Macedonian is a subject (S)—verb (V)—object (O) language. There are, however, many deviations from this S–V–O word order. 1.1. Marked Transitive Declarative Clauses In marked transitive declarative clauses, the object of the transitive declarative clause may occur clause-initially, while the subject either follows the verb or shows up between the object and the verb: (2) a1 Kniga kupi PETRE. book buy.3Sg.Aor Petre a2 Kniga PETRE kupi. book Petre buy.3Sg.Aor ‘It was Petre who bought a book (not Ana).’ The dissimilarity between the ordering of the constituents in (1) and (2) ensues from discourse differences. 1.1.1. Following the Prague School tradition,1 I take every clause to be articulated into two parts: theme or topic and rheme or comment. In the neutral, unmarked tran1 For references in English cf. Firbas 1992, Sgall, Hajičová, and Benešová 1973, Sgall, Hajičová, and Panevová 1986. 218 A GRAMMAR OF MACEDONIAN sitive declarative clauses, the topic and the comment relate to the linearization of the clause; the topic occurring clause-initially and matching up with the subject, the comment occurring to the right of the topic and matching up with the predicate. The right-most constituent of the comment of S–V–O clauses instantiates the information focus, which relates to an assertion that is not associated with a set of elements and differs from a contrastive focus, which selects an element of a set of elements implicitly or explicitly given in the previous discourse and occurs in various places in the clause.2 1.1.2. In generative grammar, there are topic and (contrastive) focus nodes in the Left Periphery of the clause, to the left of the specifier (Spec) node, where the subject checks its agreement features. In Macedonian, the checking of the agreement features of the subject may be covert or overt, depending on whether the topic node in the Left Periphery of the clause is or is not filled. In unmarked declarative transitive clauses, the subject moves from an underlying structure to the specifier (Spec) node to the left of a Tense, where the verb ends up, and we have an S–V–O word order, as in (1). In marked declarative transitive clauses, the object may show up in the Focus or the Topic phrase in the Left Periphery of the clause. If the object shows up in the Focus Phrase in the Left Periphery, the subject can (a) move to Spec and check its agreement features with the verb overtly, as in (3a1), or (b) remain in situ, i.e., in the position in which it was in the underlying vP,3 and check its agreement features covertly, as in (3a2). (3) a1 KNIGA Petre kupi. book Petre buy.3Sg.Aor a2 KNIGA kupi Petre. book buy.3Sg.Aor Petre ‘It was a book that Petre bought (not a pencil).’ If the object shows up in the Topic Phrase in the Left Periphery, to the left of the Focus Phrase, the subject may instantiate a contrastive focus and appear either to the right of the verb, as in (2a1), or in the Focus Phrase between the object and the verb, as in (2a2). 1.1.3. Adverbials can show up in various focus positions. In transitive clauses in which the object appears post-verbally, an adverbial can appear (a) in the right edge of the clause, as in (4a), and instantiate an information focus, or (b) to the immediate 2 Cf. Sgall, Hajičová, and Benešová 1973, Kenesei 1997, Kiss 1998, Arnaudova 2003a, b. 3 The structure of the vP is represented in section 2.2 below. THE STRUCTURE OF THE CLAUSE 219 left of the verb or in the Focus Phrase in the Left Periphery, as in (4b1–b2), and represent a contrastive focus. (4) a. Petre kupi kniga včera. Petre buy.3Sg.Aor book yesterday ‘Peter bought a book yesterday.’ b1 VČERA Petre kupi kniga. yesterday Petre buy.3Sg.Aor book b2 Petre VČERA kupi...


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