In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

Chapter 8 Pronominals 1. Types of Pronominals There are five basic types of pronominal forms in Macedonian: personal, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative/relative, and indefinite. Whereas the possessive, demonstrative , interrogative/relative, and indefinite pronominals operate as pronouns and as determiners, quantifiers, or modifiers,1 the personal pronominals operate only as pronouns—function words embodying only the formal features of person, number, and (in the case of third person singular) gender. 2. Personal Pronouns 2.1. Forms of Personal Pronouns The personal pronouns have full nomin and full or clitic Dat and Acc forms for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person singular and plural; the 3rd person singular forms also show gender distinctions and can be masculine, feminine, or neuter.2 There is a (full) reflexive invariant pronominal form, with distinct Dat and Acc clitics. 2.1.1. The forms of the Macedonian personal pronouns are represented in Table 1. Table 1. Macedonian Personal Pronouns Nomin Dat Acc Full Cl Full Cl 1Sg jas mene mi mene me 1Pl nie nam ni nas ne 2Sg ti tebe ti tebe te 2Pl vie vam vi vas ve 3Sg.M toj nemu mu nego go 3Sg.Neut toa nemu mu nego go 3Sg.F taa nejze í nea ja 1 I am using the term “pronominal” to cover the pronouns and the determiners, quantifiers, and/or modifiers that relate to them. 2 The neuter gender Dat and Acc forms are equivalent to the masculine ones. 166 A GRAMMAR OF MACEDONIAN 3Pl tie nim im niv gi Refl sebe si sebe se 2.1.2. The third person nominative forms toj ‘he’, taa ‘she’, toa ‘it’, and tie ‘they’ are equivalent to the deictic determiners/pronouns constructed from the root t-, from which they actually originate.3 2.1.3. In the northern Macedonian dialects, different third person personal pronouns , same as those used in Serbian/Croatian, are used—on for third person singular masculine, ona for third person singular feminine, ono for third person singular neuter , and oni for third person plural.4 2.2. Use of Personal Pronouns While the non-oblique forms of the personal pronoun occur in external argument (subject) positions and in nominal predicates, the oblique forms are used in internal argument (direct and indirect object) positions, as well as in adjunct positions. 2.2.1. The use of the non-oblique forms is emphatic; in non-emphatic environments the pronoun is dropped,5 its formal features being transferred to the verb through subject/verb agreement, though the information about the gender of the referent may have to be supplied by the context. (1) a. Taa si zamina včera. she Dat.Refl.Cl depart.3Sg.Aor yesterday ‘SHE left yesterday.’ b. Si zamina včera. Dat.Refl.Cl depart.3Sg.Aor yesterday ‘(S)he left yesterday.’ 2.2.2. The emphasis on the pronoun may be intensified by the articled forms of the modifiers vistinski ‘real’, kutar ‘pitiable’, and siromašen ‘poor’ (cf. 2a1–a2), by the adverb samo ‘only’ (cf. 2b) and by universal articled quantifiers, such as site 3 Cf. section 6 below. 4 These pronouns originate from deictics referring to distal objects. 5 Note that in conjoined structures, such as (i), the personal pronouns are not dropped: PRONOMINALS 167 ‘all+the.Pl’, samiot ‘alone+the.M.Sg’ and istiot ‘same+the.M.Sg, which are represented in (2c–e): 6 (2) a1 Toa si vistinskiot ti. that.N.Sg be.2Sg true+the.M.Sg you.Sg ‘That is the real you.’ a2 Što pretrpe, kutriot toj! what endure.3Sg pitiable+the.M.Sg he ‘Pitiable him, he had to endure so much.’ (lit. ‘What did he have to endure, pitable he.’) b. Dojde samo toj. come.3Sg.Aor only he ‘Only he came.’ (i) Jas i toj/ Jovan doaģame. I and he Jovan come.1Pl ‘I and he/Jovan are coming.’ 6 The base derived position of quantifiers and intensifiers is to the left of the pronoun, but the pronouns can be moved to clause initial position. (i) Tie site mu se na usluga. they all+the.Pl 3Sg.Dat.Cl be.3Pl to service ‘All of them are at his service.’ (ii) Jas samiot mu go kažav toa. I alone+the.M.Sg 3Sg.Dat.Cl 3Sg.N.Acc.Cl tell.1Sg.Aor that.M.Sg ‘I myself told him that.’ (iii) Taa istata go natepa. she same+the.F.Sg 3Sg.M.Acc.Cl beat.3Sg.Aor ‘The same (female) person beat him...


Additional Information

Related ISBN
MARC Record
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.