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Chapter 5 The Structure of the Nominal Phrase 1. Linearization Pattern Sentences are basically structured around two types of constituents—nouns and verbs. I will refer to the structures around the nouns as “nominal phrases”—a term that covers both noun phrases (NPs) and determiner phrases (DPs), which in generative grammar are headed by a determiner (Det) and take as a complement a noun phrase. 1.1. The linearization patterns of the constituents of the nominal phrases of most European languages are analogous. To the left of the noun we find determiners, quantifiers , and prenominal modifiers, and to its right lexical, phrasal or clausal modifiers or complements. The ordering of the constituents of the Macedonian nominal phrase adheres to this pattern with some variations. 1.2. In Macedonian, and in Slavic in general, many of the equivalents to the West European possessive and demonstrative determiners behave like modifiers. (cf. Dimitrova -Vulchanova and Tomić 2009, Topolinjska 2009). Thus, in English, the prenominal possessives alternate with demonstratives, whereas in Macedonian they can co-occur with them. Compare (1a) to (1b): (1) a. These/our houses are cold. English b. Ovie naši kuќi se studeni. Macedonian these our houses be.3Pl cold.Pl ‘These houses of ours are cold.’ 1.3. The Macedonian deictics enter into two ternary oppositions—(a) basic, qualitative and quantitative, and (b) proximate to speaker (Prox1), proximate to addressee (Prox2) and distal (Dist).1 1.4. While the English definite articles are determiners that occur in the Left Periphery of the nominal expression and alternate with demonstratives, the Macedonian definite articles are enclitics that can even co-occur with determiners:2 1 Macedonian deictics are discussed in detail in section 6 of chapter 8, entitled “Pronominals”. 2 Cf. section 2.4 of chapter 7, entitled “The Category of Definiteness and Articles”. 74 A GRAMMAR OF MACEDONIAN (2) Go sakam ovoj siniov fustan. 3Sg.Acc.Cl want.1Sg this.M.Sg blue+the.M.Sg.Prox dress ‘I want this dress, the blue one.’ 2. Nouns and Noun Equivalents The noun phrases can be headed by nouns or noun equivalents, i.e., by pronouns or modifiers that have assumed the features of deleted nouns.3 2.1. Like the nouns of most European languages, Macedonian nouns can be common or proper ([±common]), concrete or abstract ([±concrete]), animate or inanimate ([±animate]), and human or nonhuman ([±human]).4 2.1.1. The Macedonian common nouns can be preceded by determiners, quantifiers , and/or modifiers.5 (3) a1 ovaa kuќa [+concrete, –animate] this.F.Sg house ‘this house’ a2 bela kuќa white.F.Sg house ‘white house’ a3 ovaa bela kuќa this.F.Sg white.F.Sg house ‘this white house’ b. nekolku prifatlivi predlozi [–concrete, –animate] several acceptable.Pl proposals ‘several acceptable proposals’ 3 Some articled adjectives in the plural regularly occur as noun equivalents. Examples: (i) Mladite deneska se poinakvi. young+the.Pl today be.3Pl different.Pl ‘The youth are different today.’ (ii) Bolnite treba da se lekuvaat. sick+the.Pl should.3Sg Subjun.Mark Acc.Refl.Cl treat.3Pl ‘The sick should be treated.’ 4 All [+animate] nouns are [+concrete] and all [+human] nouns are [+animate]. 5 The determiners and the quantifiers are discussed in section 3, while the modifiers are discussed in section 4 below. THE STRUCTURE OF THE NOMINAL PHRASE 75 (3) c. nekoj mlad petel [+animate, –human] some.M.Sg young.M.Sg rooster ‘some young rooster’ d. našiot slaven dirigent [+human] our+the.M.Sg famous.M.Sg conductor ‘our famous conductor’ 2.1.2. Proper names referring to persons are preceded by demonstrative determiners or by articled modifiers only in marked nominal phrases. Examples: (4) a. Toj Turgenjev e moj ideal. that.M.Sg Turgenjev be.3Sg my.M.Sg ideal ‘That Turgenjev is my ideal.’ b. Očajniot Petko ne znaeše što desolate+the.M.Sg Petko not know.3Sg.Imperf what da pravi. Subjun.Mark do.3Sg ‘Desolate, Petko didn’t know what to do.’ 2.1.3. In (a) geographic names, (b) names of institutions, (c) titles, or (d) conventions for reference to a given person, there are modifiers that are constituents of the proper names:6 (5) a. Sredozemnoto more Mediterranean+the.N.Sg sea ‘The Mediteranean’ b. Makedonskata akademija na naukite i Macedonian+the.F.Sg academy of sciences+the.Pl and umetnostite arts+the.Pl ‘The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts’ c1 Sveti Nikola saint.Def.Adj Nikola ‘St Nikola...


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