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Abbreviations and Symbols Abbreviations for Grammatical Features1 1 1st person 2 2nd person 3 3rd person Acc accusative Adj adjective Adv adverb AgrDO(P) direct object agreement (phrase) AgrIO(P) indirect object agreement (phrase) Aor aorist AspP aspect phrase Aug augmentative Aux(P) auxiliary (phrase) C, C0 complementizer Cl clitic Collect collective (plural) Compar comparative (marker) CP complement phrase Det determiner Dat dative Def definite Dim diminutive Dir direction Disc discourse (particle) Dist distant Distr distributive DP determiner phrase ECM exceptional case marking Enum enumerative (plural) Eth ethical (dative clitic) 1 The present tense of imperfective verbs is, as a rule, not marked in the glosses. Gender and number of nouns are marked only when contrast has to be made. xviii A GRAMMAR OF MACEDONIAN F feminine Gen general (plural) Genit genitive Ger gerund GQ generalized quantifier Hum human Imperf imperfect (tense) Impf imperfective (aspect) Imper imperative Infin infinitive Inter interrogative Interj interjection IP inflection phrase Loc location/locative l-Part l-participle M masculine Mark marker MEC modal existential ‘wh’ construction Mod(P) modal (phrase) Mood(P) mood (phrase) N neuter Neg(P) negation (phrase) Nom nominal Nomin nominative NP noun phrase Oper operator O object Obl oblique Part participle Pass passive Past past Pf perfective (aspect) Pl plural Pref prefix Pres present PP prepositional phrase pro empty category standing for dropped subject pronouns PRO phonologically unexpressed subject Pron pronoun Prox1 proximate to 1st person ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS xix Prox2 proximate to 2nd person Refl reflexive Repet repetitive S subject Sg singular Spec specifier Specif specific Subjun subjunctive Suff suffix Superl superlative Suff suffix t trace Tant tantum Tense/AgrS(P) tense and subject agreement (phrase) Term terminativity V verb v head of vP Vb verbal VP verb phrase to the left of the specifier vP verb phrase dominating the specifier Voc vocative Abbreviations for Dialects DialMac dialectal Macedonian NMac Northern Macedonian O-ChSl Old Church Slavonic S-EMac Southeastern Macedonian S-ESerb Southeastern Serbian StMac Standard Macedonian S-WMac Southwestern Macedonian W-Bul West Bulgarian W-CMac West-Central Macedonian WMac Western Macedonian xx A GRAMMAR OF MACEDONIAN Symbols * = ungrammatical or obsolete ?, ?? = possibly acceptable2 % = acceptable in some dialects or by some speakers ←, → marks directionality of cliticization – links items pronounced as a single phonological word capitalized letters mark stressed syllables capitalized words mark focused constituents 2 The occurrence of *, ? or ?? to the immediate left of a bracket denotes that omission is not allowed or is seldom allowed, i.e. that the item within the brackets has to occur obligatorily or preferably. ...


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