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11 SURVEY OF NOUNS BY STRESS PATTERN 11.1. SUMMARY OF NOMINAL STRESS PATTERNS Where possible, at least one example of a stress pattern is given here for each major declensional type. Reviewing, the letter A refers to stem stress, B to end-stress, and C refers to a shifting pattern, whether in the sg. or pl. The first of two letters refers to stress in the singular, the second to stress in the plural. Some convenient labels for discussing nominal stress patterns are the following: FIXED STRESS (AA or BB) means that stress remains on either the stem (STEM-FIXED STRESS or A) or on the ending (END-FIXED STRESS or B) throughout the declension; see кг AA, с BB. STEM-SHIFTING STRESS. The notation A′A′′ refers to nouns with stress on different syllables of the stem in the sg. and pl., respectively; see о NApl. о . A′A′′ patterns are infrequent. PLAIN-SHIFTING STRESS (AB or BA). Stress falls either on the stem in the sg. and on the ending in the pl. (as г од AB NApl. гоод) or, conversely, on the ending in the sg. and on the stem in the pl. (as ок BA NApl. к). SINGULAR-SHIFTING stress (CA, CB, or CC) characterizes a relatively few feminine first-declension nouns with stress on the ending in all forms of the sg. except the Asg., where stress falls on the stem; see од CA Gsg. од, DPsg. од, Asg.  ду, Isg. од ). Since this shift occurs only with the ending -у, it may also be referred to as U-RETRACTION. PLURAL-SHIFTING stress (AC, BC, CC) can characterize a noun of any gender, although it is rare with neuter nouns. Under plural-shifting stress, stress falls on the stem in the Npl. and inanimate Apl., and on the ending in the GDILpl.; see  лк AC, Npl.  лк, GApl. олк , Dpl. олкм, Ipl. олкм, Ppl. олк. 218 11. SURVEY OF NOUNS BY STRESS PATTERN 11.2. ILLUSTRATIONS OF STRESS POSSIBILITIES Patterns will be illustrated in the order: AA, A′A′′, AB, AC; BA, BB, BC; CA, CC (CB is lacking). 1. AA: Stress fixed on the stem. г  newspaper AA Sg. Pl. N г  г  G г  г  D г  г м A г у г  I г о г м P г  г   дл week AA Sg. Pl. N  дл  дл G  дл  дл D  дл  длм A  длю  дл I  дл   длм P  дл  дл This type encompasses over ten thousand nouns, many of them borrowings . A mobile vowel in the Gpl. is indicated with |. Some examples are к, бб, бллд, блюсд, б  , б сд, б мб, бк,  , , о , го , г, гл, г, г, г , дм, д, до г, д, !", , ск, кс, ксс, клк, кг, к !, коллг, коф, кс, кк|л, лкц, л!, м, м$, му!$, мк, м, гд, луб, |л,  ", ц,  ц,  с, дуг, ,  клм,  ф м, б, с!, с кд, сл, ссм, сл, субб , м, $, лц, фбк, ф мул, , , к. If stress falls on the stem in the sg. of a first-declension noun, stress is almost certain to be fixed throughout the declension. Suffixal nouns of this type are too numerous to mention. They would include words in -к, (including -у к, -к, -к, - к, and so on) -ц, -, -, - к, -", -, -б, -, -сс, -, -, -с, - б, - , -г, - , -, -, - , - г. Inherently stressed suffixes are indicated with stress marks. 11.2. ILLUSTRATIONS OF STRESS POSSIBILITIES 219 !ул magazine AA Sg. Pl. N !ул !ул G !ул !уло D !улу !улм A !ул !ул I !улом !улм P !ул !ул  warrior knight AA Sg. Pl. N    G     D  ю  м A     I  м  м P    This type contains over eleven thousand nouns, many or most of them borrowings (especially the multisyllabic ones). The examples below represent only a small sample of native-stock words, and some representative borrowings. The presence of a mobile vowel in the Nsg. is indicated by citation of the Gsg. гус, омобл , лм , л , б , с, б, бк, бл, блк, блок , бк, г ,  лосд,  бл%д,   ,  д ,  гл д, д,  г,  , к, ок л,  л ,  о,  ск,  к,  д, глсук, г, г сл (also AC), гд, г , дд, досг, д, д , ! л ,  д, к , л, , к, к, %л , % , км, к!л, к ск, коц, кк, к лк, ку , лм , л, лф, лк, мг , м с, м дд , мсц, мод, м г, мо ,  д, л,  дг, , б , об&к, ог, ол , о, окс, к, с  с, о', л, л !,  дг, од&м, о, офл ,  дк,  дм, м, л с, к,  , к, ом, о л , ок к, смо, с, ско ск, с , с к, сл  сл , соб , с кол, солд, со% , с ккл , с , с к, ск, сл , суд, с$,  , г, , о, ом,  , с,  , ус, гол гл (also BA), !с, !, фк, фл м, фц , фк, г, м, д, and hundreds of others. Almost all three- and four-syllable words are recognizable borrowings. The masculine AA type embraces many nouns in such suffixes as -, -, -, -к, -, -, - , -, - м, -, -, -о, -, -с, 220 11. SURVEY OF NOUNS BY STRESS PATTERN - л , -, - ок, -ок, -к, -л ц, -ок, -, -о, -"к, - , - к, -л к, -л "к, - л , -$к. Inherently stressed suffixes are marked with a stress mark.   wind AA, colloquially AC (P2 in -) Sg. Pl. N    G  о D у м A    I ом м P  , P2    Most words with the AA stress pattern which can take the optional prepositional ending - (P2) are monosyllables. They include д, бд, б, д, г , !, кл, л, мл, м л, л, , л, , с, с к, мл , ц, $д. Also, often: )о  )оо. ло rule AA Sg. Pl. N ло л G л л D лу лм A ло л I лом лм P л л д building AA Sg. Pl. N д д G д д D дю дм A д д I д м дм P д д The neuter AA type encompasses over four thousand nouns, but fewer than a hundred basic (underived) nouns. Some common nouns are блго, бл%до, бол о, б%о, ко, г  , г ло, !ло, ! л о, !о, цло, лоо, го, коо, коо, кс|ло, ло, л ! , л о, лко, $ло, кло, л , од|ло, оло|ц , ло, со, 11.2. ILLUSTRATIONS OF STRESS POSSIBILITIES 221 с лц , о (with end-stress in time expressions), $до, $о, $$ ло, блоко. Neuter second-declension nouns with suffixes - о, -со, -ко, -" -ц follow the AA pattern, as do verbal nouns (ending in - :  or - :   ). с tie, bond AA Sg. Pl. N с с  G с  с  D с  с м A с с  I с ю с м P с  (P2 с ) с  Similarly, with possible P2 listed: кл , бд  л , бол  , б л , бл , ул , г , гм  , глб глуб, г л  , го , г , гс , г г , дл дл, д л , л ,  с , !  , б , к  , кос , лд  , мгсл , мб л , м дл , мд , мл м л, м л , мг , модл , мо л , м л , мол , мок  , м " , мсл , ф , бу , м , с ,  дл , лс  , л  , ол ,  мо" , о , л л,  , с , сос , су step,  д ,   , and many others suffixed in - л , -  , -ос , -ос . Most fem.-2 nouns with P2 in - belong to the AC type. Stress shifts within the stem: A′A′′. This label encompasses a small number of nouns belonging to various inflectional types, but seemingly no nouns of the first declension. до nobleman (stress shifts to the left when -- is dropped; thus, this type can also be characterized as stem-final fixed) A′A...


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