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5 PRELIMINARIES TO NOUN DECLENSION Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9 are devoted to the individual inflection-types of nouns (first, masculine second, neuter second, feminine and neuter third). Before looking at these patterns in detail, in this chapter we will take up a number of preliminary matters, including (a) a review of orthographic conventions , (b) the concept of the nominal base form, (c) noun stress notation , (d) mobile vowel notation. 5.1. THE NOTION OF “PEDAGOGICAL ORTHOGRAPHY” As illustrated in Chapters 3 and 4, the spelling of Russian words most closely reflects the mid-morphophonemic level of word representation, the level at which inflected words consist of an outer stem and a grammatical ending, and before the rise of the tertiary (soft paired) consonants. This level is most conveniently represented in a technically modified cyrillic orthography . In order to convert a mid-level morphophonemic representation like, say, л -о into an actual spelled form л, л -о becomes interpreted as a “spelling problem” л +о, solved by applying to it rules of orthographic regularization. Such rules belong to what can be called PEDAGOGICAL ORTHOGRAPHY. Pedagogical orthography is in the main like the technical orthography introduced in Chapter 3, adapted slightly to the needs of pedagogical presentation and supplemented by practical spelling procedures. Its purpose is to help to produce standard spelled wordforms as efficiently as possible in a classroom setting, while preserving an appreciation for the underlying structure of words. The idea of technical orthography goes together with the notion of the PEDAGOGICAL STEM. A pedagogical stem is one which is normalized in spelling to the extent possible, but which still retains as much symbolic representation as is necessary to ensure that the forms generated from it will be correct. For example, the pedagogical stem of  is  -. Together with the orthographic convention / ( when stressed,  when unstressed), this stem-form will predict Nsg.  and NApl.  . The pedagogical 122 5. PRELIMINARIES TO NOUN DECLENSION stem of с is с -, from which one may predict Nsg. с and NApl. с . From the pedagogical stem у|-, one may predict NAsg. у and Gsg. у; and so forth. One need not make distinctions that are not going to be of practical use in the noun’s declension. For example, there is no need to write the pedagogical stem of с as с-, even though it etymologically is, since the rule → would not apply (say, in Gpl. с) before  in any case. Among technical orthographic symbols and conventions used here, the following are most important: when stressed,  when unstressed  always , whether stressed or not| mobile vowel slot # null ъ§§ plain zero ending ь§§ softening zero ending  soft-sign superscript, marking a stem-final consonant as soft + orthographic stem-ending juncture 5.2. SPELLING-RULES FOR COMBINING STEMS AND ENDINGS 5.2.1. ORTHOGRAPHIC STEM-TYPES For purposes of accounting for the spelling of inflectional forms, stem-types include 1. plain-consonant stems (stems ending in , б, ф, , м, , д, с, , , л, ) 2. velar stems (stems ending in к, г, ) 3. hushing stems (stems ending in , , , ) 4. ц-stems 5. soft-stems (stems ending in  , д , с ,  ,  , л ,  ). Stems in soft labials ( , б , ф ,  , м ) occur rarely; an example would be глуб -. 6. -stems Each one of these stem-types has specific orthographical conventions associated with it. In the following discussion, ! will designate a plain consonant letter ( б ф  м  д с  л ); К will represent a velar consonant letter (к г ); # will represent a hushing-consonant letter (   ); ц will represent itself as a letter;  will represent itself as a letter; C will represent a soft paired consonant; $ will designate a plain vowel letter (only % о у, since & does 5.2.1. ORTHOGRAPHIC STEM-TYPES 123 not occur in endings); and ' will designate an iotated vowel letter ((  )  ю). Plain-Consonant Stems a. !+$=!$: no change, only simple addition. Example: у л+%: у л% b. !+'=!': no visible change in the spelling, corresponding to the softening of the plain consonant before the softening vowel. Example: у л+= у л /žurna'läe/. Note: the vowels  and  are never respelled as &. Velar-Stems Except for the following rule, velar stems follow the plain-consonant spelling rules: К+ = К). This rule reflects the automatic softening of velars before the vowel . Examples: ук+*= ук+ [rukäI'], ог+*= ог+ [nogäI'], бло+*= бло+ [blVxäI']. Hushing-Consonant Stems Hushing-consonant spelling rules are based on not entirely consistent considerations of etymology and history, and only partly on considerations of how well they reflect pronunciation. Since with hushing consonants the hard/soft distinction is neutralized, it would make sense if this neutralization were reflected in the spelling by projecting plain-vowel letters everywhere ; however, this is not what happens. a. #+ %/(, /, /), у/ю = #%, #, #), #у, respectively. Illustrations: ду+ = ду , с+= с , ду+= ду, с+= с, ду+*= ду+, с++= с+, д.+у= д.у, с+0= с.. b. #+ о, . The spelling rules for hushing consonants plus о and depend on whether the vowel is stressed...


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