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230 Langua~e of ori~inal: Source oftext: Introduction Boyd & Mack/The Collected Works ofNana Asma 'u Work 38 The Battle of Gawakuke Gawakuke Ma'unde 185611857 - 1273 Fulfulde Waziri Junaidu On 31 March 1836 Caliph Muhammad Bello defeated his enemies,539 in a desolate place, Gawakuke, situated in the southern fringes of the Sahara desert. Bello died the following year, leaving his successors a difficult act to follow. In the 1850s his son, Aliyu, suffered a number of military defeats. When enemies dared to attack the Caliphate heartland, and Muhammad Bello's widow was killed,s40 the leading scholars met in the mosque and demanded action. Against this background of disquiet Asma'u, Bello's sister, wrote The Battle of Gawakuke (Gawqkuke Ma'unde, lit., The Second Poem on Gawakuke); it was not the first time she had addressed the subject. An earlier poem about the battle, written in 1836, had been brief and bereft of detail. In contrast, this poem, written two decades later, is remarkable for its vividness: it was clearly meant to put fortify the army leaders. Evidence of the state of affairs in the Caliphate at the time is found in two sources. Heinrich Barth, the traveller, met Caliph Aliyu in March 1853. Barth liked Aliyu but said of him, "He does not appear to have inherited many of the notable qualities of his father and, least of all, his warlike spirit and hence the lamentable condition in which I found his extensive kingdom" (Barth, 1859 III: 108, 117). Barth's views receive reinforcement from a work by Caliph Aliyu's cousin, Umar b. Muhammadu Buhkari, who praised Aliyu for dealing effectively with the dissidents at the beginning ofhis reign. He then went on to say, He called men to serve in frontier posts but they had no enthusiasm for the job. They preferred to tend their irrigated farms, trade in the markets, herd cattle, and work their crafts. They neglected the affairs of the Jihad and refused to join the army when called. "'Ali, ChiefofGobir: Ibra, Chiefofthe Temisgida Tuareg: Rawda, ChiefofMaradi-Katsina, and his brother, Baciri. SDm.tk, lit., The Second Poem on Gawakuke); it was not the first time she had addressed the subject. An earlier poem about the battle, written in 1836, had been brief and bereft of detail. In contrast, this poem, written two decades later, is remarkable for its vividness: it was clearly meant to put fortifY the army leaders. Evidence of the state of affairs in the Caliphate at the time is found in two sources. Heinrich Barth, the traveller, met Caliph Aliyu in March 1853. Barth liked Aliyu but said of him, "He does not appear to have inherited many of the notable qualities of his father and, least of all, his warlike spirit and hence the lamentable condition in which I found his extensive kingdom" (Barth, 1859 Ill: 108, 117). Barth's views receive reinforcement from a work by Caliph Aliyu's cousin, Umar b. Muhanunadu Buhkari, who praised Aliyu for dealing effectively with the dissidents at the beginning ofhis reign. He then went on to say, He called men to serve in frontier posts but they had no enthusiasm for the job. They preferred to tend their irrigated farms, trade in the markets, herd cattle, and work their crafts. They neglected the affairs of the Jihad and refused to join the army when called. "'Ali, ChiefofGobir; Ibra. Chiefofthe Ternisgida Tuareg; Rawda. ChiefofMaradi-Kalsina, and his brother, Baciri. "'The attack was on Silarne, the attacker MayaRi, Chiefof Gobir. The widow killed was simply referred to as "Moi's mother". 230 Boyd & Mack/The Collected Works ofNana Asma 'u Work 38 The Battle of Gawakuke Gawakuke Ma'unde 1856/1857 - 1273 Fulfulde Waziri Junaidu Lan~JaI:e of odgina!: Source oftext: Introduction On 31 March 1836 Caliph Muhammad Bello defeated his enemies,m in a desolate place, Gawakuke, situated in the southern fringes of the Sahara desert. Bello died the following year, leaving his successors a difficult act to follow. In the 1850s his son, Aliyu. suffered a number of military defeats. When enemies dared to attack the Caliphate heartland, and Muhammad Bello's widow was killed,540 the leading scholars met in the mosque and demanded action. Against this background of disquiet Asma'u, Bello's sister, wrote The Battle of Gawakuke (Gawakuke M.>Dm.tk, lit., The Second Poem on Gawakuke); it was not the first time she had addressed the subject. An earlier poem about the battle...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9781609170653
Related ISBN
9780870134753
MARC Record
OCLC
605316199
Launched on MUSE
2012-12-20
Language
English
Open Access
No
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