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139 Glossary agha: landowner. Asaysh: security force (Kurdish). donum: unit of measurement equivalent to 2,500 square miles (26,910 square feet). dowry: bride payment. hawlana system: informal system of loaning money among Kurdish communities based upon personal trust and family ties. iqta: modern agrarian system defined by patriarchical mechanisms of labor control, such as sharecropping and tenancy on large estates and based on social relations of production. Where customary property rights were weak or where tribesmen could challenge the shaykh, a weaker form of iqta emerged, alongside conflict. jash: traitor; lit., donkey foal. lasmah tenure: type of land ownership granted to those who have exploited the land for a given period of time; right of settlement and cultivation. maf: right (Kurdish). miri: state-owned lands. Under this system of land ownership the state leases land to cultivators by annual contracts based on a crop-sharing system. mufti: Islamic scholar. mukhabarat: Iraqi intelligence service. mustashar: local state official. nahiyya: subdistrict. peshmerga: Kurdish militia; lit., those who face death. qadha: district. qawmiyya: a form of pan-Arab nationalism based on the premise of a shared Arab national identity. shaykh: religious official or village leader. tapu: land tenure established under the Ottoman administration. waqf: an unincorporated trust under Islamic law by a person for the provision of a designated service in perpetuity. 140 | Glossary wasta: personal contacts and influence used to determine decisions and outcomes. wataniyya: nationalism based on state sovereignty and territory. ...


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