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Notes n o t e s to t h e i n t ro du c t i o n 1. Caesar Farah, Islam (Hauppauge, N.Y.: Barron’s, 1994), 307. n o t e s to c h a p t e r 1 1. Joseph Dupuis, Journal of a Residence in Ashantee (London: Henry Colburn , 1824), part 2, chap. 8, p. xiv. 2. John O. Hunwick, “The Influence of Arabic in West Africa,” Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana (1964): 24. 3. Theophilus Conneau, A Slaver’s Log Book or Twenty Years’ Residence in Africa (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1976), 141. 4. Theodore Dwight, “Condition and Character of Negroes in Africa,” in The People of Africa: A Series of Papers on Their Character, Condition, and Future Prospects, ed. Henry Schieffelin (New York: A. D. F. Randolph, 1871), 52–53. 5. Ibid. 6. Michael Crowder, The Story of Nigeria (London: Faber & Faber, 1973), 106–7. 7. Jean Baptiste Léonard Durand, Voyage au Sénégal fait dans les années 1785 et 1786 (Paris: Dentu, 1807), vol. 1, 123. 8. Baron Roger, Kélédor, histoire africaine (Paris: Nepveu, 1828), xi. 9. Oskar Lenz, Tombouctou, voyage au Maroc, au Sahara et au Soudan (Paris: Hachette, 1887), vol. 2, 119. 10. Lamin Sanneh, The Crown and the Turban: Muslims in West African Pluralism (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997), 148. 11. Gaspard Theodore Mollien, L’Afrique occidentale en 1818 (1820; reprint, Paris: Calman Levy, 1967), 103. 12. Francis Moore, Travels into the Inland Parts of Africa (London: E. Cave, 1738), 30. 13. John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1680 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 87–88. 14. Moore, Travels, 30. 15. Ibid., 50. 16. Ibid. 211 17. Conneau, Slaver’s Log Book, 69. 18. Carl Bernhard Wadstrom, An Essay on Colonization, particularly applied to the Western Coast of Africa (London: Darton & Harvey, 1794), part 2, 111. 19. Durand, Voyage au Sénégal, 125. 20. Paul Lovejoy, “Background to Rebellion: The Origins of Muslim Slaves in Bahia,” Slavery and Abolition 15, 2 (August 1994): 164. 21. P. E. H. Hair, “The Enslavement of Koelle Informants,” Journal of African History 6, 2 (1965): 199. 22. Philip Curtin, “Ayuba Suleiman Diallo of Bondu,” in Africa Remembered : Narratives by West Africans from the Era of the Slave Trade, ed. Philip Curtin (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967), 40. 23. Wadstrom, Essay on Colonization, part 2, 91. 24. Allan Fisher, ed., Slavery and Muslim Society in Africa: The Institution in Saharan and Sudanic Africa and the Trans-Saharan Trade (London: C. Hurst & Co, 1970), 24–25. 25. Dixon Denham, Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa, in the Years 1822, 1823, and 1824 (London: John Murray, 1826), 149. 26. Orlando Patterson, Slavery and Social Death (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982), 278–88. 27. Bernard Lewis, “The African Diaspora and the Civilization of Islam,” in The African Diaspora: Interpretative Essays, ed. Martin Kilson (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976). 28. Akbar Muhammad, “The Image of Africans in Arabic Literature: Some Unpublished Manuscripts.” in Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa, ed. John Ralph Willis (London: Frank Cass, 1985), vol. 1. 29. Emily Ruete, Memoirs of an Arabian Princess from Zanzibar (New York: Markus Wiener Publishing, 1989) 30. Paul Edwards, ed., Equiano’s Travels (1789; reprint, London: Heinemann , 1969), 126. 31. René Luc Moreau, Africains musulmans (Paris: Présence Africaine, 1982), 127. 32. Ibid., 128–29. 33. Ruth Mazo Karras, Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988), 14–15. 34. Nize Isabel de Moraes, A la découverte de la Petite Côte au XVIIe siècle (Dakar: Université Cheikh Anta Diop, 1995), vol. 1, 111, 115, 117, 119. 35. Ibid., vol. 2, 358. 36. Ibid., vol. 2, 365. 37. As are 85 percent of the Guineans, 70 percent of the Malians, 60 percent of the Sierra Leoneans, and 50 percent of the Nigerians. 212 | Notes to Chapter 1 38. de Moraes, A la découverte de la Petite Côte, vol. 2, 358. 39. Jean Boulègue, Le Grand Jolof XIIIe–XVIe siècles (Blois: Edition Façades, 1987), 136. 40. Max Portugal Ortiz, La esclavitud negra en las épocas colonial y nacional de Bolivia (La Paz: Instituto Boliviano de Cultura, 1977), 14–15. 41. It is an unpardonable sin in Islam to worship any being but God. Muhammad , being not divine but only a simple mortal, cannot be the...


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