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101 n o t e s introduction 1. Robert F. Heizer and Albert B. Elsasser, “Some Archaeological Sites and Cultures of the Central Sierra Nevada,” Reports of the University of California Archaeological Survey 21 (Berkeley: University of California, 1953), 9; Andrew Todhunter , Fall of the Phantom Lord (New York: Doubleday, 1998), 29. 2. Jones and Stokes Associates, Inc., Cave Rock Management Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement [hereafter feis] (Sacramento, Calif.: Jones and Stokes, 2002), chap. 3, 1–2; Erich Obermayr, Foot Path to Four-Lane: A Historical Guidebook to Transportation on Lake Tahoe’s Southeast Shore (Moundhouse, Nev.: Nevada Department of Transportation, 2005), 21–23; E. B. Scott, The Saga of Lake Tahoe, vol. 1, (Crystal Bay, Nev.: Sierra-Tahoe Publishing, 1957), 251. 3. Washoe Tribe, “Protection of De’ek wadapush (Cave Rock),” n.d., www (accessed Feb. 12, 2009); feis, chap. 3, 9–10. We use the terms shaman and doctor interchangeably because Washoe sources have consistently done so since the earliest interviews in the 1930s. 4. For an overarching discussion of Indian sacred places, see Vine Deloria Jr., Spirit and Reason: The Vine Deloria, Jr., Reader (Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Publishing , 1999), 323–38; see also Peter Nabokov, Where the Lightning Strikes: The Lives of American Indian Sacred Places (New York: Penguin Group, 2006); feis, chap. 2, 21. 5. Scott, The Saga of Lake Tahoe, vol. 1, 256; feis, chap. 3, 1, 13–15. See also Don Handelman, “The Development of a Washoe Shaman,” in Native Californians: A Theoretical Retrospective, ed. John Lowell Bean and Thomas Blackburn (Menlo Park, Calif.: Ballena Press, 1976); Edgar E. Siskin Papers, Collection 90–68, box 1, Special Collections Department, University of Nevada, Reno [hereafter unr]. The statement about not driving through the tunnels comes from discussions with numerous tribe members. 6. Obermayr, Foot Path to Four-Lane, 12, 22; Scott, Saga of Lake Tahoe, vol. 1, 251–56; E. B. Scott, The Saga of Lake Tahoe, vol. 2 (Crystal Bay, Nev.: Sierra-Tahoe Publishing, 1973), 64–65. 7. Thomas Frederick Howard, Sierra Crossing: First Roads to California (Berke- 102 notes to pages 3–7   ley: University of California Press, 1998), 156; Scott, Saga of Lake Tahoe, vol. 2, 62–63; feis, chap. 3, 12–13; Scott, Saga of Lake Tahoe, vol. 1, 255. 8. Scott, Saga of Lake Tahoe, vol. 2, 67. 9. feis, chap. 3, 8; Paul McHugh, “The Battle over Cave Rock,” San Francisco Chronicle, Sept. 25, 2003. 10. Mike Carville, Rock Climbing Lake Tahoe (Helena, Mt.: Falcon Books, 1999), 3. The quote is from McHugh, “The Battle over Cave Rock.” 11. Carville, Rock Climbing Lake Tahoe, 3. 12. Ibid., 112–14, 223–24; feis, chap. 3, 30–31. Osman considered Jay Smith one of his four climbing exemplars (Todhunter, Fall of the Phantom Lord, 24). 13. Todhunter, Fall of the Phantom Lord, 29. 14. Carville, Rock Climbing Lake Tahoe, 112; feis, chap. 3, 30–33. In 2002 forest managers estimated nonclimbing Cave Rock recreation users at 750–1,000 annual visits (feis, 33). 15. feis, chap. 1, 2; Washoe Tribal Council Minutes, Apr. 5, 1951, folder 064, Washoe Tribe Minutes, 1945–1955, box 7, Western Nevada Agency, Carson, Tribal Council Minutes/Resolutions 1940–1974, Record Group [hereafter rg] 75, National Archives and Records Administration [hereafter nara], Pacific Region, San Bruno, Calif.; Record Courier, Apr. 20, May 11, 1951; Brian Wallace, Gardnerville , Nev., to Steve Chilton, Aug. 24, 1992, Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California files, Gardnerville; Linda Eissmann, Carson City, Nev., to Brian Wallace, May 28, 1993, Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California files, Gardnerville, Nev. 16. “Cave Rock’s Religious Importance,” Tahoe Daily Tribune, Apr. 18, 1993; Carville, Rock Climbing Lake Tahoe, 15. 17. “Cave Rock’s Religious Importance,” Tahoe Daily Tribune, Apr. 18, 1993; Brian Wallace, videotaped interview with Michael Makley, Carson City, Nev., June 14, 1998, video in possession of authors. 18. Sam Davidson, Access Notes, vol. 20 (winter 1997), (accessed Feb. 22, 1998). 19. “A Brief History of the Access Fund,” /about/history.php (accessed Feb. 24, 2009); /whoweare/board.html (accessed June 15, 1997); National Park Service, Devils Tower N.M.—Final Climbing Management Plan, _climbing/detotoc.html (accessed October 4, 2008). 20. Paul Minault, San Francisco, Calif., to Steve Chilton, July 12, 1993, copy in possession of authors. 21. Juan Palma, “Cave Rock Management Direction, Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit [hereafter ltbmu...


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