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xi In the late 1990s my son, Matthew, and I became aware of a dispute over one of Lake Tahoe’s best-known landmarks: Cave Rock. The clash between Washoe Indians, who held the property sacred, and rock climbers, who used its world-class climbing routes, simmered and periodically boiled until it was resolved by the federal court system in 2007. Throughout the process my interest in documentary filmmaking motivated me to tape interviews with climbers and tribal members. I also recorded four public meetings the U.S. Forest Service called to discuss the use of the site. From the recorded material I produced a thirty-minute video, Cave Rock: The Issue, which was subsequently used as a source document in the court cases. When the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals issued the final verdict in 2007, Matthew and I decided to chronicle the dispute in book form. Our connection to this topic is personal as well as academic. I lived in South Lake Tahoe, a few miles from Cave Rock, for more than thirty years. I worked seven summer seasons for the Forest Service at Tahoe and maintain friendships with Washoes and Tahoe Basin climbers alike. Matthew grew up in the area and also has friends among both groups. He wrote a Washoe tribal history for his Ph.D. dissertation and now teaches American Indian history at Metro State College in Denver. In the work that follows, he wrote the Washoe parts, and I dealt with the climbing history and court cases. Writing this book proved to be a fulfilling enterprise, shepherded to its conclusion by Matt “Becks” Becker at the University of Nevada Press. His editorial guidance and suggestions greatly enhanced the work; he has earned our appreciation and gratitude. Others at the press to whom we owe thanks include Director Joanne O’Hare, Managing Editor Sara Vélez Mallea, Design Manager Kathleen Szawiola, and Marketing Manp r e f a c e xii cave rock   ager Barbara Berlin. Marcia Yablon’s Yale Law Journal paper, cited in the endnotes, provided a significant overview of the complex problems and possible solutions involved in settling Native sacred site claims. Heidi Englund of the Nevada Historical Society helped us to acquire materials on early roads and the tunnels accessing Cave Rock; she also helped us reference historical photographs of the site. Joel Guldner assisted our acquisitions of photos from the University of Nevada, Reno, Special Collections Department. Melinda Conner’s workmanship in editing the text was superior. She was exacting and thorough, improving its clarity, readability , and continuity. Matthew wishes to thank Peter Iverson, Donald Fixico, Sherry Smith, Waziyatawin Angela Wilson, Susan Miller, Lisa Emmerich, Michael Magliari, John Yarnevich, Steve Leonard, and Jim Drake. Most of all we express thanks to Alea and Randi for their constant support. c a v e r o c k NEVADA CALIFORNIA Nuclear area Peripheral area Winnemucca Lake Carson Lake Washoe Lake Walker Lake Mono Lake Pyramid Lake Eagle Lake Honey Lake Carson Sink Feather River Yuba Rive r Bear River American River Lake Tahoe Consumnes River Mokelumne River S t a n i s l a u s R i v e r W alker R i v e r Carson River Truckee Riv e r Carson City Gardnerville Reno Woodfords N 0 30 20 10 40 mi Traditional Washoe homelands. The white “nuclear” area represents lands used on a regular basis where communities kept permanent village sites. Gray “peripheral” areas include extended hunting, gathering, and trading lands. Notice Lake Tahoe in the center. Versions of this map have been used since the boundaries were officially set during the Indian Claims Commission case in 1948. ...


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