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247 Notes Preface 1. Emily S. Rosenberg, Financial Missionaries to the World: The Politics and Culture of Dollar Diplomacy, 1900–1930 (Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press, 2003); Mary Renda, Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of US Imperialism, 1915–1940 (Durham: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2001). 2. Mercedes Randall, Improper Bostonian: Emily Greene Balch, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, 1946 (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1964), 303. 3. For literature on cosmopolitanism and women’s internationalism see: Kwame Anthony Appiah, Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006); Leila Rupp, Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women’s Movement (Princeton , NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1997); Jane Addams, Democracy and Social Ethics (New York: Macmillan, 1902); Jane Addams, Newer Ideals of Peace (New York: Macmillan, 1907); Sondra Herman, Eleven Against the War: Studies in American Internationalist Thought, 1898–1921 (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ. Press, 1969); Charlene Haddock Seigfried, Pragmatism and Feminism (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1996). Introduction: Race and the Politics of Peace and Freedom 1. For this history, see Harriet Hyman Alonso, Peace as a Women’s Issue: A History of the US Movements for World Peace and Women’s Rights (Syracuse: Syracuse Univ. Press, 1993), 20–55; Robert David Johnson, The Peace Progressives and American Foreign Relations (Cambridge , MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1995); and Valerie Ziegler, The Advocates of Peace in Antebellum America (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1992). 2. Emily Greene Balch, Jane Addams, and Alice Hamilton, eds., Women at The Hague: The International Congress of Women and Its Results (New York: Macmillan, 1915), 150. 3. David Levering Lewis, W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868–1919 (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1993), 576. 4. Brent Edwards, The Practice of Diaspora: Literature, Translation, and the Rise of Black Internationalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 2003). 248 | Notes to Pages 5–11 5. Alonso, Peace as a Women’s Issue, 56–58. 6. Ibid., 56–84. 7. Nancy Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 1987), 246. See also Susan Zeiger, “Finding a Cure for War: Women’s Politics and the Peace Movement in the 1920s,” Journal of Social History (Fall 1990): 69–86. 8. For the history of the WPU, see Harriet Hyman Alonso, The Women’s Peace Union and the Outlawry of War, 1921–1942 (Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1989). 9. Carrie Foster, The Women and the Warriors: The United States Section of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, 1915–1946 (Syracuse: Syracuse Univ. Press, 1995), 8. 10. The women’s associations in the NCCCW included the AAUW, the General Federation of Women’s Clubs, the YWCA, the National Woman’s Christian Temperance League, and the National Women’s Trade Union League. Alonso, Peace as a Women’s Issue, 106–7. 11. Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How US Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I (Syracuse: Syracuse Univ. Press, 1997); Kathleen Kennedy, Disloyal Mothers and Scurrilous Citizens: Women and Subversion During World War I (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1992). 12. Early, World Without War, xxi. 13. For more history of the international sections of WILPF, see Gertrude Bussey and Margaret Tims, Pioneers for Peace: Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, 1915– 1945 (1965; repr., Oxford: Alden Press, 1980); Rupp, Worlds of Women. 14. Alonso, Peace as a Women’s Issue, 90. 15. For the international membership of the WILPF and the international women’s movement more generally, see Rupp, Worlds of Women, 63–81. 16. Bussey and Tims, Pioneers for Peace, 34. 17. Rupp, Worlds of Women, 34. 18. Addams, Newer Ideals, 19. 19. Ibid., 14. 20. For more on the community internationalist perspective, see Marilyn Fischer, Carol Nackenoff, and Wendy Chmielewski, eds., Jane Addams and the Practice of Democracy (Chicago: Univ. of Illinois Press, 2009); Herman, Eleven Against the War. 21. C. A. Foster, Women and the Warriors, 6. 22. Balch, “Journey and Impressions,” in Women at The Hague: The International Congress of Women and Its Results, ed. Emily Greene Balch, Jane Addams, and Alice Hamilton, 15 (New York: Macmillan Company, 1915). 23. Balch, Addams, and Hamilton, Women at The Hague, 150–54. 24. For this perspective, see Alonso, Peace as a Women’s Issue, and Rupp, Worlds of Women. 25. Balch, Addams, and Hamilton, Women at The Hague, 136. 26. Addams, “Women and Internationalism,” in Women at The Hague, 128. 27. Ibid., 128. Notes to Pages 11–15 | 249...


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