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xv Acknowledgments I owe gratitude to many people who have made this book possible. But I first want to acknowledge the unending and often unnoticed work for social justice done by everyday people who struggle to provide for their families and communities and to live free from war. At this project’s earliest stage, the members of my dissertation committee provided me with invaluable direction, criticism, and unending support. I could not have asked for a better committee chair in Susan K. Cahn. Susan patiently guided me as I searched to turn my research interests into a viable project. Through her own scholarship and leadership in the field of women’s history, she modeled for me an approach to women’s history that could be grounded in both local studies and national developments and that paid attention to the intersecting issues of race and class. It was Elizabeth Lapovsky Kennedy who nudged me to enter the PhD program. Thanks, Liz. As a scholar, member of my committee, and a friend, she guided the development of this book in its nascent stage and remained a believer in this project and my ability to complete it. It was in a graduate seminar with Masani Alexis De Veaux that I first discovered the work of Addie Hunton, a woman who figures centrally to this book. Masani not only expanded my understanding of the field of African American women’s literature, history, and activism, she reminded me to be fearless and to find enjoyment in my work. Likewise, Michael Frisch believed in my scholarship, supported me throughout the process, and offered a model of community-engaged research. Other people I had the good fortune of working with while a graduate student and who influenced my thinking and scholarship include Ruth Meyerowitz, Alice Echols, and Hester Eisenstein. I want to call particular attention to my xvi | Acknowledgments good buddy and respected colleague, Robin Hicks, who died in December 2005. Robin’s commitment to African American women’s history and the politics of education inspired me. As well, her great humor and unwavering friendship were unmatched. Members of my writing group, Lisa Botshon, Monica Chiu, Robin Hackett, Rebecca Herzig, Eve Raimon, and Siobhan Senier, gave of their time and offered unwavering support throughout this endeavor. Thanks to all of you for your keen reading of my work. I have gained so much not only from your comments and advice, but just as importantly I have been emboldened to persevere as I have watched you all bring your books to fruition. In the final stage of this work I made additional requests of Lisa, Eve, and Rebecca, who graciously did yet another set of readings of my work and answered my questions about the mechanics of turning my work into a book. Over the many years and versions of this project, Wendy Chmielewski of the Swarthmore College Peace Collection offered her insight on the WILPF. Her professionalism and friendship helped this project along in many ways. I must also thank the rest of the staff at Swarthmore for their diligence and patience over the years. My colleagues at Bates College have provided friendship and encouragement and an overall warm working environment. The Dean of Faculty’s office and Bates College Faculty Research Grants made possible numerous trips to archives and the general completion of this manuscript. At Syracuse University Press, I want to thank former acquisitions editor Annelise Finegan, Kay Steinmetz , Marcia Hough, and Lynn Hoppel for ushering me through the process of bringing this book to completion. The insightful comments of the Syracuse University Press reviewers, Frances Early and one anonymous reviewer, also helped give shape to this project. For general encouragement, I want to thank my family and friends who remained by me as this project took on a life of its own and spanned many years. My mother-in-law, Carol Jane Gottfried, never failed to ask how the book was going and to remind me that she looked forward to reading it. Thanks also to my sister Andrea and her partner Joyce Lupack for remaining key members of my fan club. I also want to acknowledge Jim and Kay Plastas for their support. Special thanks go to Candace Kanes Acknowledgments | xvii and Barbara Murphy for being there during an important moment in my life and for continuing to provide warmth, great food, and irreverence just when it was most needed. To the many friends who gave encouragement at different stages, I can’t...


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