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274 The Collected Writings of Michael Snow was never explained. But even more perplexing and mysterious: as Bastien and Cognat, startled, responded to Sabane's unexpected word, they noticed a distinct hush in the surrounding jungle sounds! This hush is noticeable in the recording and continued through the rest of the performance. Unsettling for "unbelievers" is the possibility that the jungle spirits showed their apprehension (justified later) at these foreign sounds. The village consisted of a clearing of earch and grass roughly 150 x 200 feet, surrounded by thatched buildings, themselves surrounded by jungle incredibly rich in fish and lizards, birds, monkeys, ocelots, as well as fruit, manioc root, herbs and materials for rope, etc. The WAYAPIS are hunters/gatherers but are basically agricultural. They do no planting but tend chickens and pigs with which they augment the contributions of the rain forest. They have dogs called YEPE which are occasionally eaten. The WAYAPIS also domesticated macaws by removing some of their feathers so they are unable to fly. These birds are kept for their feathers which are used in headdresses such as SABANE wore during the ROIAKURILUO ceremony. For centuries the overnight and early-morning guarding and tending of the tribe's domestic animals has been the special province of a shaman (in Wayapi, a BARI). Our recording is of the traditional greeting of the dawn by the BARI, in this case a man of 25-30 years of age named SABANE. His father KOYOWEMAN taught him the secrets of the position and it is said that his grandfather had also been the tribe's BARI. Dawn at Elahe is an incredible symphony of awakening jungle creatures (pauragues , green-rumped parakeets, yellow orioles, red Howler monkeys and giant black bees are heard in our recording) with hens, roosters, pigs, dogs, macaws and people. The BARI's dawn ceremony called ROIAKURILUO is one of inspired participation in the sounds around him. Literally a "participation mystique," the shaman's intention is to "represent" the human in this parliament of the world. His contribution is mainly vocal and includes specifically human sounds with human versions of animal language and spirit language (directed to BUTARICO, the spirit of rain and APIBORE , spirit of the jungle, as well as many others, including a gesture to ARDETTOWARAARE , the "death shaman" of the tribe). Some of ROIAKURILUO is directly imitative (e.g., one of the dog barks is by SABANE, some is conversational; SABANE greets, encourages, cajoles the pigs, chickens and dogs as well as passing jungle birds and even insects. The important religious and philosophical aspect of the shaman's performance is that all the participants are equals. Man is not the ruler. The entire created world greets the new days as an ensemble with occasional solos by each instrument. The performance ends with the shaman singing an invocation first to the East, then to the North, West and South in turn; he essentially says good morning to each of these directions with specific reference to the sun. This section, called KASILI, is followed by a low hummingwhich is said to be an invocation to the earth itself, that it continue to be as fertile as it has been heretofore. In 1984 this area of Brazil was cleared of its trees. Attempts to establish farms followed , but have been unsuccessful. The Brazilian government continues in its attempts to interest the WAYAPIS in farming. The Last LP 275 5. RAGA LALAT Played by PALAK CHAWAL, PHAL KA HALAWA and ALU GAVRANGA, Benares, India. This final cut is our most recent recording and is tragically brief. It was recorded 13 March 1986 in Benares, India, and is the only known recording of an extraordinarily promising young musician named PALAK CHAWAL, who died during the explosion which ends this recording. Many Indian music lovers have bemoaned the use in their music of the harmonium . This instrument, a keyboard instrumentrelated to the harmonica, accordion and organ, is sometimes known as the reed organ. Air is supplied by a bellows activated by foot pedals. It is interesting that the harmonium's ancestry goes back to China and Japan, where the SHENG and SHO were important members of the royal orchestras. In the 18th century a Chinese mouth-organ (SHENG) was brought to St Petersburg and its free reed was introduced into Europe generally by a German organ builder. At the beginning of the 19th century a new group of instruments was based upon the free reed principle, of which the...


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