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NOTES Introduction 1. Václav Havel, ‘‘Výročı́ okupace Československa vojsky Varšavského paktu,’’ August 21, 1990, (accessed September 9, 2009). This speech was intended for a domestic audience and, unlike other speeches, was not translated into English. Havel could hardly have chosen a more symbolic day on which to deliver this speech. August 21 marks the anniversary of the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact armies. His listeners were aware of the historical undertones that he evoked by the parallel between political reforms in post-communist Czechoslovakia and the events of 1968, when the progressive wing of the Communist Party around Alexander Dubček had attempted to initiate the liberal reform of the socialist system. The effort of the so-called Prague Spring to build ‘‘socialism with a human face’’ was halted by the Soviet-led intervention, which had acted officially in response to a request from a group of hard-liners within the Czechoslovak Communist Party. The echo of betrayal, and concerns about the democratic reforms, reverberated with the same urgency in 1990. 2. L. Paul Bremer III with Malcolm McConnell, My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope (New York: Threshold Editions, 2006), 341. Bremer recalls making this remark in the spring of 2004, almost a year after the launch of de-Baathification . 3. See, e.g., Manuel Antonio Garretón, ‘‘Redemocratization in Chile,’’ Journal of Democracy 6, no. 1 (1995): 147. 4. Ibid. 5. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report (Cape Town: Juta, 1998), 2:709–10. But cf. Adrian Guelke, ‘‘Interpretations of Political Violence During South Africa’s Transition,’’ Politikon 27, no. 2 (2000): 239–54. 6. The direct involvement of the state in running hit squads and providing covert funding and training to IFP was later confirmed by a commission of inquiry, headed by Judge Richard Goldstone, which was set up to investigate the acts of violence committed during that period. Richard J. Goldstone, ‘‘Commission of Inquiry Regarding the Prevention of Public Violence and Intimidation’’ (Pretoria, 1992–94). 7. Richard Spitz and Matthew Chaskalson, The Politics of Transition: A Hidden PAGE 243 ................. 18039$ NOTE 06-09-11 09:17:39 PS 244 Notes to Pages 3–8 History of South Africa’s Negotiated Settlement (Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 2000), 32. 8. Ibid., 31. 9. Ibid., 97. 10. See, e.g., Wendy Hunter, ‘‘Continuity or Change? Civil-Military Relations in Argentina, Chile, and Peru,’’ Political Research Quarterly 112 (1997): 458. 11. See, e.g., BBC, ‘‘Profile: Augusto Pinochet,’’ BBC News, December 3, 2006, (accessed September 9, 2009). 12. Ruti G. Teitel, Transitional Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 152–57. 13. The literature on the topic is briefly reviewed below. 14. ‘‘Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 1: De-Ba’athification of Iraqi Society,’’ May 16, 2003, 1_De-Ba_athification_of_Iraqi_Society_.pdf (accessed September 9, 2009). See also ‘‘Coalition Provisional Authority Memorandum Number 1: Implementation of DeBa ’athification Order No. 1,’’ CPAOrder1imp.pdf (accessed September 9, 2009); ‘‘Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 5: Establishment of the Iraqi De-Baathification Council,’’ http://www (accessed September 9, 2009). 15. In addition to ideological reasons for fighting the invaders, there were few employment options available to them. Roman David, ‘‘From Prague to Baghdad: Lustration Systems and Their Political Effects,’’ Government and Opposition 41, no. 3 (2006): 367. 16. Ibid. Bremer alleviated the policy without revoking it, reinstating ‘‘some ten thousand teachers.’’ See Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 343. 17. Roman David, ‘‘Lustration Laws in Action: The Motives and Evaluation of Lustration Policy in the Czech Republic and Poland (1989–2001),’’ Law & Social Inquiry 28, no. 2 (2003): 387–439. 18. Teitel, Transitional Justice, 15. 19. Samuel P. Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991). 20. E.g., Teitel characterizes the lustration law in Poland as a ‘‘self-purge,’’ although the law effectively gives inherited personnel a second chance. Teitel, Transitional Justice, 71. 21. David, ‘‘From Prague to Baghdad,’’ 349. 22. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report, 5:311; Jonathan Klaaren, ‘‘Institutional Transformation and the Choice Against Vetting in South Africa ’s Transition,’’ in Justice as Prevention: Vetting Public Employees in Transitional Societies , ed. Alexander Mayer-Rieckh and Pablo de Greiff (New York: Social Science Research Council, 2007...


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