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PREFACE This book addresses one of the most pressing problems that new governments face in the aftermath of transition: the personnel they inherit from the previous regime. They may not be perpetrators of human rights abuses, but their prior role casts doubt on their loyalty to the new regime. For these states, a dilemma arises: should the old personnel be excluded from or incorporated in it? The new political elites have to consider whether the policies they adopt—for instance, the expulsion or retention of these tainted officials—would have a negative impact on their primary objective: democratization and establishing a stable administration. The consequences of the de-Baathification in post-Saddam Iraq have revealed the importance of effective personnel policies. Although it originally intended to establish trustworthy government by ridding the state apparatus of discredited Baathists, the policy augmented historical rifts in society as a whole. The negative social effects of de-Baathification may have undermined its primary political purpose. Although transitional personnel policies are essential to successfully consolidate state structures and are important because of their spillover effect on social reconciliation, research in transitional justice and democratization has not given adequate attention to this topic. The variety of inclusive alternatives to dismissals that developed in Central and Eastern Europe have also been largely overlooked. While Czechoslovakia and other countries purged their administrations of the remnants of previous regimes, Hungary and Poland developed considerably more sophisticated methods for dealing with their discredited personnel. They adopted methods based on truth revelation and confession that were stipulated as conditions for inclusion. The personnel policies put into place may produce various results in terms of the people’s trust in government and social reconciliation . Consequently, in contrast to the role of electoral systems and truth PAGE ix ................. 18039$ PREF 06-09-11 09:17:12 PS x Preface commissions in democratization, very little is known about the operation and consequences of transitional personnel policies. To fill this gap, this book proposes the concept of personnel systems as a theoretical abstraction of transitional public employment measures that regulate access to non-elected positions in public administration. It classifies personnel systems as three types: exclusive, inclusive, and reconciliatory . The exclusive system is based on the dismissal of inherited personnel from the state apparatus, whereas the inclusive system is based on their exposure and the reconciliatory system on their confession of past wrongdoing . Although they have political-security objectives, personnel systems are viewed in the eyes of its protagonists as different purification measures that aim at cleansing society from the taint of the past. The acknowledgment of the symbolic role of personnel systems helps to explain both the demand for personnel systems and their effects. Each system reflects and conveys a different ideological message about the previous regime and its tainted officials. Consequently, each system has a particular propensity to generate direct (political) effects on trust in government, as well as indirect (social) effects on reconciliation with former adversaries and on the collective memory of the past. Thus, personnel systems appear at a critical juncture , which may affect a society’s political culture for many years. The utility of these systems is examined in Central Europe, which has implemented personnel systems by means of lustration laws. Lustration refers to the screening or vetting of public officials against the archives collected by the secret police under their socialist regimes. In order to deal with personnel inherited from the communist regimes, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland have developed three archetypal models: exclusive, inclusive, and reconciliatory systems, respectively. This book interprets the different meanings of these systems, demonstrates their operation, analyzes their origins, assesses their implementation, and examines their effects. To examine their origin, we analyzed a number of historical surveys conducted in these countries in the early 1990s and scrutinized parliamentary debates on lustration laws. In order to examine the political and social effects of different systems, we have devised an original and uniquely tailored experimental vignette, which was embedded in nationwide surveys in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland. The survey experiment tested the effect of dismissal, exposure, and confession on trust in government and on social reconciliation at the level of individual and their effect on collective memory at the country level. PAGE x ................. 18039$ PREF 06-09-11 09:17:13 PS Preface xi A word about terminology used in this book. Part II of the book uses the concept of lustration systems as a regional variant of personnel systems. We use lustrations...


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