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Appendix Livestock Diseases Anthrax Caused by spores of the genus Bacillus anthracis, anthrax is a zoonosis that affects all types of domestic animals, as well as antelope. It can spread to humans through contact with sick animals and their products. The spores lie in the ground and can remain dormant for a long time. Infection is through contact with a sick animal, through ingestion of spores, and possibly through insect bites. It can now be prevented by vaccination. Brucellosis (contagious abortion; undulant fever; Malta fever) Caused by the Brucella bacteria, brucellosis was historically a major impediment to increasing the size and yield of herds throughout the world. All types of domestic animals are susceptible to particular strains of this disease, which results in abortion and infertility. The germ is concentrated in aborted fetuses and the uterine fluids of an infected animal. It is also shed in semen and milk. Humans can contract the disease through contact with infected animals, carcasses, or unpasteurized milk. Brucellosis is now preventable by animal vaccination.  | Appendix Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Historically, this disease has been present in all parts of the world. It is caused by the Mycoplasma mycoides and spread between cattle in water droplets. Symptoms include fever, anorexia, and breathing problems. In serious cases, septicemia sets in, damaging the internal organs. Mortality rates are about 50 percent. Many of the cattle that do survive become carriers. They show no symptoms but are a danger to the rest of the herd. Some countries have managed to eradicate this disease by slaughtering infected herds, imposing strict quarantines, restricting animals’ movements, and more recently , through vaccinating herds. East Coast Fever (Theilerosis) Also known as African Coast fever,this disease is a major problem for pastoralists in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by a parasite, Theileria parva, and spread by the brown tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Symptoms include a nasal and lachrymal discharge, as well as anorexia. Mortality is especially high in herds with no prior exposure to the disease. Those cattle that do survive have lifelong immunity but are carriers—hence, a potential danger to the rest of the herd. In the early twentieth century, control was by regular stock dipping to kill the ticks, accompanied by internal quarantines and restrictions on cattle movements. Vaccines now exist but are difficult to store and administer. The brown tick is also responsible for spreading Theileria lawrenci, the cause of corridor disease in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) This is a very infectious viral disease that affects all types of domestic animals . It is characterized by vesicles on the mouth, teats, and hooves. Although morbidity is up to 100 percent, mortality rates are low. The disease spreads through direct contact with infected animals. Because of international trading agreements, which prize countries with FMD-free status, many countries have resorted to mass culling to eradicate the infection. However, FMD can be effectively controlled through vaccination. Footrot Footrot is the result of infection by bacteria that causes lesions to appear on the skin between the claws of sheep. These lesions can deepen so that the horny part of the hoof can become almost completely detached from the rest of the foot. The disease causes lameness, fever, anorexia, loss of condition , and, ultimately, death. Today, the disease is treated with drugs and Livestock Diseases |  chemical footbaths. Footrot is common throughout the world, but climate, vegetation, and other environmental factors can influence its distribution. Fowl Cholera This is a contagious disease that affects both domestic and wild birds. It is caused by the Pasteurella multocida and spread in secretions from the mouth and eyes. Rodents are the prime carriers. The disease can be prevented and controlled through sanitary measures in the hen house, as well as by sulphonamides and antibiotics. Glanders A disease of horses, glanders is normally fatal. It is characterized by the development of nodules on the skin as well as in the lungs and other internal organs. It is caused by Burkholderia mallei that disseminates through nasal secretions and pus from skin ulcers. Shared water, grazing, and fodder facilitate transmission. Historically, it has affected all continents. There is no vaccine, but there are antibiotic treatments that are deployed in areas where the disease is endemic. Malignant Catarrhal Fever (snotsiekte) This is primarily a disease of domestic cattle and water buffalo. Sheep and wildebeest are the main carriers. In Africa, cattle that graze on land where wildebeest have given birth are particularly susceptible to infection as the...


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