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No ka maa o na kanaka i na hana lealea, pela no ka nui o nei mea he nalu e oleloia nei e kakou. —Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. may 14, 1870. p. 4. Many surfs were used in this popular sport. —‘Ī‘ī. Fragments. p. 134. Surfers in Hawai‘i today ride waves at more than five hundred surf sites across the eight major islands, and it is likely that native Hawaiians surfed at most if not all of these spots. In Surfing: A History of the Ancient Hawaiian Sport,BenFinneyandJamesHoustonlistthenamesof106sitesthatHawaiians surfed. They compiled their list from the writings of Hawaiian scholars John Papa ‘Ī‘ī and Samuel Kamakau and from the personal notes of noted Hawaiian scholar and linguist Mary Kawena Pukui, who had written down names of surf spots during her many years of translating at the Bishop Museum. Native Hawaiian surfers, like surfers today, named their spots for landmarks , physical features at the surf sites, and characteristics of the waves. Their names, like ours, were reflections of the surfers themselves and the surf culture of the day when the names were given, so former names carry the rich traditions of early Hawaiian surfing. Although some of the former names are names of places onshore, it is likely that every surf spot had its own unique name and that if it has a land name today, such as Waimanu or Waipi‘o, then the actual name of the surf spot was never recorded and was lost over time. Hawaiians were noted for giving names to everything of importance in their lives, but the historical written record of surfing has favored identifying only the most popular surf spots, such as those the ali‘i [chiefs] surfed, and not the lesser-known spots, of which there were many. The first passage that follows shows that there were surf spots in Lā‘ie, and the second 7UDGLWLRQDO6XUI6LWHV 3 +$:$,,$1685),1*  passage names a spot in Lā‘ie, ‘Ahaiki, where “the people of old surfed.” But that name, which is from a kanikau, does not appear in any other sources. Laie. Ekolu o ko makou halawai ana me na kanaka o ua aina la ma ka po akolu, moe malaila, a halawai ma ka wanaao. Aole nui na kamaaina, hookahi haneri ma kekahi pule; kanaha ma kekahi, umikumamalima ma kekahi, nui na malihini: no Kaneohe kekahi poe a no Koolauloa kekahi poe, ua kokoke like ka nui o ka poe malihini me na kamaaina ma ka makou pule ana. O na kamaaina ka nui o ko lakou makemake i ka hee nalu; aole makemake lakou ma ka pule, no ia mea aole makou i hooloihi i ko makou noho ana malaila. —Ke Kumu Hawaii. feb 4, 1835. p. 55. Lā‘ie. We had three services with the people of this place, and on the third night we slept there and had service in the early morning. There were not many residents present; one hundred in one service, forty in another service, fifteen in another service. There were many non-residents. Some were from Kāne‘ohe and some were from Ko‘olauloa. There were almost as many visitors as there were residents in our services. Most of the residents would rather surf; they do not like to attend services, and for that reason we did not extend our stay there. Kuu kupunawahine o ka lae o Laniloa Oia lae paio pu no me na ale o ke kai Aloha ia‘u ke kai heenalu o Ahaiki Oia nalu a ka poe kahiko i hee ai Aloha ia‘u ka lae o Kamakahoa. —Ko Hawaii Pae Aina. sep 6, 1879. p. 4. My dear grandmother of the point of Laniloa The point that has stormy battles with the swells of the sea Beloved to me are the surfing waves of ‘Ahaiki The waves that the people of old surfed Beloved to me is the point at Kamakahoa. When non-Hawaiians started surfing, they began giving English names to the Hawaiian surf sites. The changes happened first in Waikīkī, where one of the first names to change was Kapuni, the spot known today as Canoes. Canoe surfing re-emerged in Waikīkī in the 1890s, and in 1897 a group of Hawaiians organized the first canoe surfing concession on Waikīkī Beach. They called themselves the Hui Pākākā Nalu, or the Canoe Surfing Club. The popularity of canoe surfing with its commercial focus on English-speaking visitors at Waikīkī Beach led to...


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