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Glossary Abbreviation: a short form of a word (e.g., Comd for command). Abstract: a brief summary of the research question, line of approach, and conclusions of an academic paper. Abstracts typically range from 75 to 150 words. Academic essay: an explicitly and deliberately persuasive essay.Authors of academic essays make a specific point in an attempt to convince their readers to agree with their opinions on a given issue. These essays evaluate ideas in an attempt to prove their authors right. Academic writing: in this book, this term refers specifically to the composition of a research essay. Acronym: a short form of several words that can be read as a single word (e.g., CEFCOM for Canadian Expeditionary Forces Command or NATO for North Atlantic Treaty Organization). Additional research: in the research process, this is the stage for serious reading. Body: the part of an academic essay made up of arguments and subarguments , each of which is supported by relevant, and properly documented, evidence. Book review: a critical assessment of a book or monograph. Book reviews provide academics and other interested readers with a sense of whether a book is worthy of more than a cursory glance. Reviews typically provide a summary of the author’s main argument, an assessment of the book’s strengths and weaknesses, and a comment on the suitability of the book for its intended audience. Case study: often used as evidence in academic essays, a case study generally refers to a field-based, narrative-style description of an actual situation. Case studies commonly involve a decision, challenge, or opportunity that faces an individual in a particular organization. Comprehensive outline: when used with reference to the academic process, a comprehensive outline lays out the framework for a persuasive 125 9-GlossaryMilitary:09-Glossary 19/10/09 08:31 Page 125 essay. It is divided into three broad sections: introduction, body, and conclusion. Conclusion: in an academic essay, the conclusion reiterates the paper’s main argument and reviews how the author reached it. It typically ends with the “so what?” component of the paper. Contraction: reducing two words to one, or shortening a single word, by replacing some of the internal letters, typically with an apostrophe (e.g., should not becomes shouldn’t). Contractions are generally not acceptable in academic writing. Criterion-based assessment: a form of academic assessment in which a clearly defined list of criteria form the basis against which essays are evaluated. Taken to the extreme, criterion-based assessors might use a checklist, awarding points for the completion of specific tasks (e.g., including a clear thesis statement) and deducting points for objective errors (e.g., spelling mistakes). Dangling modifier: a word, phrase, or clause that is supposed to add detail or clarity to a word or phrase, but that has been inserted into the text without having anything to modify. Dangling modifiers tend to present themselves when writers use the passive voice. Direct quotation: the presentation of someone else’s exact words. Endnote: a superscript number with a full note at the end of the chapter or book. Expository essay: a primarily descriptive paper that aims to describe or “expose” the full extent of an issue or idea to the reader without necessarily passing judgment on it. Faulty parallelism: when two or more parts of a sentence are parallel in meaning but not parallel in form. Footnote: a superscript number with a full note at the bottom of the page. Gendered language: wrongly ascribing gender to a word or object (e.g., referring to a country as “she”). Gendered language is grammatically incorrect. Some also consider it offensive. Headings: key words used to divide a paper into sections. Headings act as a quasi-index for readers seeking specific information within a paper quickly. 126 Glossary 9-GlossaryMilitary:09-Glossary 19/10/09 08:31 Page 126 Holistic grading: when an assessor grades a paper without providing an explicit list of criteria upon which the grade is based. This approach remains common in universities and colleges. Initialism: an abbreviation that uses the first letter of each abbreviated word in a phrase.Although initialisms might also be acronyms (consider NATO [NorthAtlantic Treaty Organization]), they do not have to be (e.g., the CBC [Canadian Broadcasting Corporation]). Introduction: in an academic essay, the introduction begins the paper by acclimatizing the reader to the subject matter. It typically starts broadly and ends with a narrow focus. Literature review: a critical assessment of a series of books...


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