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4 Notes and Quotes Contents: • When to use a footnote • The appropriate use of quotations • The importance of scholarly attribution Key Terms: • Direct quotation • Paraphrase • Tangential / explanatory / expository commentary • Plagiarism Figure: • Figure 4.1: Comparing defence expenditures, 2004 The goal of this chapter is to review one of the aspects of the academic process that is particularly different from both staff and popular writing: the use of notes. We will explain what type of information requires a footnote (or whatever the appropriate form of citation might be), when to use quotations to support your argument , how to integrate quotations into your paper effectively, and how to ensure that your paper is faithful to the tenets of academic professionalism (a polite way of saying how not to plagiarize). I. When Do You Footnote? Figuring out when to footnote can cause newcomers to academic writing—and particularly members of the military establishment, who take pride in their professionalism and adherence to rules and orders—significant frustration. If you don’t footnote enough, you might be accused of plagiarism. If you footnote too much, it will 77 04-Military:04-Military 24/10/09 10:32 Page 77 look as though you haven’t had any original thoughts. Although there is no standard rule, our experience suggests that you should expect to have approximately three to four footnotes (or their equivalent ) per every 250 words. Again, it is possible that you will not have close to that many (certain journals in fact restrict the number of notes that are allowed), or that you will have a lot more, but at least this gives you a baseline. You should insert a footnote, or its equivalent, in four specific instances: 1. Direct Quotations Whenever you use someone else’s exact words, you must cite your source formally. Whether your note comes immediately after the quotation or at the end of the relevant sentence or section will depend on the style to which you have been asked to conform, but the note must always be there. The logic here is straightforward : if these are someone else’s words, you have an obligation to direct the reader to the original source for verification. For example , Lieutenant-Colonel Stephen Coonen uses a quotation from the academic and commentator Robert Kagan to describe the implications of the relative decline of European power in world affairs. The passage reads as follows: Another concern of the widening capabilities gap is that the power differences cause the United States and Europe to see the world differently.According to Kagan, the power gap between the United States and Europe has provided Europe and America with different outlooks on the world: When the European great powers were strong, they believed in strength and martial glory. Now they see the world through the eyes of weaker powers. These very different points of view have naturally produced differing strategic judgments, differing assessments of threats and of the proper means of addressing them, different calculations of interest, and differing perspectives 78 Notes and Quotes 04-Military:04-Military 24/10/09 10:32 Page 78 on the value and meaning of international law and international institutions.1 2. Paraphrase of Another’s Ideas There will likely be a number of cases in your paper where someone else’s ideas are critical to your argument but you believe that it would be more effective to summarize them in your own words instead of quoting them directly.Again, because you are presenting someone else’s thinking, you must provide a note directing the reader to the original source. Going back to the Coonen article, the author makes reference to the conclusions of professors David Calleo and Joseph Nye: “Indeed, Europeans are portrayed as the alleged masters of ‘soft power’and are thus perhaps more adept at coping with today’s asymmetrical threats than the United States.”2 Coonen’s footnote indicates that the idea in the quotation —that Europeans are the masters of soft power—is drawn specifically from an article that Calleo published in The National Interest and Nye discussed in his 2002 book, The Paradox of American Power: Why the World’s Only Superpower Can’t Go It Alone. 3. Obscure or Controversial Statistics Certain statistics do not typically require references. For example , all but the most specialized and idiosyncratic scholars will agree that, for the sake of common understanding, the First World War began in 1914. Similarly, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor took place on...


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