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229 Notes Chap te r 1 1. Throughout this book I use “Black” to describe U.S. citizens or U.S. residents (those without legal citizenship) of Black African descent. “African Americans” is another term that is frequently used, but Black Americans remain divided as to which term is the most appropriate, particularly for Blacks whose ancestry is traced to U.S. slavery and who have little knowledge of and connection to the African continent and culture. Use of the term “Black” also can better encompass more recent immigrants of African descent who hail from Africa, the Caribbean, Europe, Canada, and so on but who do not typically identify themselves as “African American.” Although there are instances where “Black” will not be capitalized, these involve direct quotations from others who do not capitalize the term. There is no set standard for whether or not the term is to be capitalized when referring to race. 2. Gandy, Sacred Pampered Principles, 8. 3. Many terms are used to describe abuse by a spouse, ex-spouse, girlfriend/ boyfriend, ex-girlfriend/boyfriend, or dating partner. For example, domestic violence, intimate partner violence, intimate partner abuse, domestic abuse, woman battering, spouse abuse, wife abuse, and dating violence are often used to describe abuse by current or former intimate partners. In this book I use these terms interchangeably, though I most often use “intimate partner abuse” to convey violence and other forms of abuse directed toward women by their intimate companions. Using the word “abuse” instead of “violence” addresses acts that do not neatly fit within the strict definition of “violence,” such as controlling and psychologically demeaning acts (Belknap and Potter, “Intimate Partner Abuse”). 4. T. C. West, Wounds of the Spirit. 5. Wyatt et al., “Examining Patterns of Vulnerability.” 6. Rennison and Welchans, Intimate Partner Violence. See also the Uniform Crime Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 7. See Collins, Black Feminist Thought; Davis, Women, Race and Class; hooks, Ain’t I a Woman; hooks, Feminist Theory, 2nd ed.; hooks, The Will to Change; Morrison, The Bluest Eye; Morrison, Song of Solomon; Richie, Compelled to Crime; and A. Walker, The Color Purple. 230 Notes to Chapter 1 8. Sanchez-Hucles and Dutton, “The Interaction Between Societal Violence and Domestic Violence.” 9. M. Smith, “When Violence Strikes Homes,” 23–24. 10. Crenshaw, “Mapping the Margins.” 11. See, e.g., Garfield, Knowing What We Know; Richie, Compelled to Crime; T. C. West, Wounds of the Spirit. 12. Belknap, The Invisible Woman; Tierney, “The Battered Women Movement.” 13. Schechter, Women and Male Violence. 14. Belknap and Potter, “Intimate Partner Abuse.” 15. Tierney, “The Battered Women Movement.” 16. Belknap, The Invisible Woman. 17. Tierney, “The Battered Women Movement.” 18. Ibid. 19. Ibid. 20. Belknap, The Invisible Woman. 21. Johnson and Sigler, “Public Perceptions.” 22. Brewster, “Domestic Violence Theories,” 24. 23. hooks, Talking Back, 87. 24. Erez and Belknap, “In Their Own Words.” 25. Belknap, The Invisible Woman; Rodriguez et al., “Screening and Intervention for Intimate Partner Abuse.” 26. Fyfe, Klinger, and Flavin, “Differential Police Treatment.” 27. Belknap, The Invisible Woman. 28. Center for the Advancement of Women, Progress and Perils. 29. Bograd, “Strengthening Domestic Violence Theories”; Richie, Compelled to Crime; Richie, “Reflection on the Antiviolence Movement.” 30. Richie, “Reflection on the Antiviolence Movement”; C. M. West, Violence in the Lives of Black Women. 31. Crowell and Burgess, Understanding Violence Against Women; Rankin, Saunders, and Williams, “Predicting Woman Abuse by African American Men”; Sorenson, “Violence Against Women.” 32. A. Smith et al., “The Color of Violence: Introduction.” 33. hooks, We Real Cool, 57. 34. Chesney-Lind, “Doing Feminist Criminology”; Chesney-Lind, “Patriarchy, Crime, and Justice.” 35. A. Smith et al., “The Color of Violence: Introduction.” 36. Ibid., 4. 37. For an exception, see Tjaden and Thoennes, Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence. The authors determined that “American Indians/Alaska Natives” have higher rates of intimate partner violence than members of other racial and ethnic groups. 38. Catalano, Intimate Partner Violence in the United States. Notes to Chapter 2 231 39. Tjaden and Thoennes, Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence. 40. Rennison and Welchans, Intimate Partner Violence. 41. Including those conducted by Hampton and Gelles, “Violence Toward Black Women,” and Straus, Gelles, and Steinmetz, Behind Closed Doors. 42. Benson et al., “Neighborhood Disadvantage, Individual Economic Distress.” 43. Stark and Filtcraft, Women at Risk. 44. To protect the privacy of the women, each woman and the individuals mentioned by them were assigned pseudonyms. Chap te r 2...


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