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Notes CHAPTER 2 1. Handlin begins the first chapter of The Uprooted with the following statement: “Once I thought to write a history of the immigrants in America. Then I discovered that the immigrants were American history” (1951, 3). 2. A perhaps unintended consequence of the more restrictive immigrant policy was the emergence of the illegal immigrant, a category that had not been necessary in earlier periods of open immigration. Thus, it is not surprising that the establishment of the U.S. Border Patrol dates to 1924 as well (Isbister 1996). 3. For a more detailed analysis of structural forces that both promote immigration and attract immigrants, see Massey (1999). 4. As far as I know, none of the plane hijackers had immigrant status in the United States, but their entry to the United States, via tourist or student visas, was in some cases handled by the U.S. Immigration Service. 5. At the same time, although a majority (57 percent) of those questioned believed that melting pot policies had made the country stronger at the beginning of the twentieth century, respondents were more likely to see the current effects less favorably (27 percent stronger, 44 percent weaker, 23 percent no effect, and 6 percent undecided). 6. It is somewhat ironic that Hayward was herself an American. Thus, just as a British citizen gave the melting pot to the United States, so a citizen of the United States is credited with creating the Canadian metaphor. 7. These percentages have increased in both countries since the Bourhis and Marshall analysis, which was based on 1990 and 1991 Census figures for the United States and Canada, respectively. Current estimates are approximately 31 percent for the United States (Bean et al. 2004) and more than 13 percent for Canada (Esses, personal communication), showing the increase but maintaining the original point that Bourhis and Marshall made. 217 218 Notes CHAPTER 3 1. LePen’s victory was made possible by a badly split Socialist party opposition. As a result, the 17 percent vote that LePen gained (similar in fact to what he had garnered in the previous election) placed him second in a crowded field. 2. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, a 1995 Princeton Survey Research Associates poll showed that 44 percent of the respondents rated immigration from African countries as about right, while only 33 percent said it was too many (Lapinski et al. 1997). Interpretation of these attitudes would require, however, knowing how many African immigrants the respondents thought were currently entering the United States. It also seems likely that the majority of Americans have very little exposure to immigrants from Africa and so would not perceive the group to be problematic. 3. In data collected in 1989 and reported by Sidanius and Pratto in 1999, Arabs were also included in the ratings and were generally rated slightly higher than blacks and Latinos, but markedly lower than Asians. 4. Color-based hierarchies are not unique to the United States. For a comprehensive analysis of the significance of skin color in Brazil, a country often claimed to be color-blind, see Edward Telles (2004). 5. In chapter 6, I deal with the actual behaviors involved in assimilating and the alternatives. Here I focus only on the attitudes toward these processes, by members of both host and immigrant groups. 6. Bourhis et al. (1997) make two modifications: they change the definition of cultural adaptation from an emphasis on maintaining relationships to the criterion of “adopting the cultural identity of the host community”; and they subdivide the marginalization cell into anomie (emphasizing marginalization as cultural alienation from both host and origin) and individualism (defined as a preference for definition as an individual rather than as a member of any group). CHAPTER 4 1. It is now widely believed that the second author on this book was actually W. I. Thomas, who was unable to publish under his own name for several years because of a sex-related scandal. 2. This period of investigation, it should be noted, stops just after the liberalization of U.S. immigration policy and the resultant change in demographic patterns of immigration. 3. Another fourth-generation study of national stereotypes is that of Madon et al. (2001). Because they used a slightly different methodology and sample than the original Katz and Braly study, I am not using them as a basis of comparison here. 4. The 1951 Gilbert data showed a considerably higher number of 15.3. That figure...


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